Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 9

» Light Field Reconstruction Using Shearlet Transform
Abstract:
In this article we develop an image based rendering technique based on light field reconstruction from a limited set of perspective views acquired by cameras. Our approach utilizes sparse representation of epipolar-plane images (EPI) in shearlet transform domain. The shearlet transform has been specifically modified to handle the straight lines characteristic for EPI. The devised iterative regularization algorithm based on adaptive thresholding provides high-quality reconstruction results for relatively big disparities between neighboring views. The generated densely sampled light field of a given 3D scene is thus suitable for all applications which require light field reconstruction. The proposed algorithm compares favorably against state of the art depth image based rendering techniques and shows superior performance specifically in reconstructing scenes containing semi-transparent objects.
Autors: Suren Vagharshakyan;Robert Bregovic;Atanas Gotchev;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 133 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Network Coding Over Rings – Part I: Scalar Codes and Commutative Alphabets
Abstract:
Linear network coding over finite fields is a well-studied problem. We consider the more general setting of linear coding for directed acyclic networks with finite commutative ring alphabets. Our results imply that for scalar linear network coding over commutative rings, fields can always be used when the alphabet size is flexible, but other rings may be needed when the alphabet size is fixed. We prove that if a network has a scalar linear solution over some finite commutative ring, then the (unique) smallest such commutative ring is a field. We also show that fixed-size commutative rings are quasi-ordered, such that all the scalar linearly solvable networks over any given ring are also scalar linearly solvable over any higher-ordered ring. We study commutative rings that are maximal with respect to this quasi-order, as they may be considered the best commutative rings of a given size. We prove that a commutative ring is maximal if and only if some network is scalar linearly solvable over the ring, but not over any other commutative ring of the same size. Furthermore, we show that maximal commutative rings are direct products of certain fields specified by the integer partitions of the prime factor multiplicities of the ring’s size. Finally, we prove that there is a unique maximal commutative ring of size if and only if each prime factor of has multiplicity in {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}. As consequences, 1) every finite field is such a maximal ring and 2) for each prime , some network is scalar linearly solvable over a commutative ring of size but not over the field of the same size if and only if .
Autors: Joseph Connelly;Kenneth Zeger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 274 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Network Coding Over Rings – Part II: Vector Codes and Non-Commutative Alphabets
Abstract:
In Part I, we studied linear network coding over finite commutative rings and made comparisons to the well-studied case of linear network coding over finite fields. Here, we consider the more general setting of linear network coding over finite (possibly non-commutative) rings and modules. We prove the following results regarding the linear solvability of directed acyclic networks over various finite alphabets. For any network, the following are equivalent: (i) vector linear solvability over some field, (ii) scalar linear solvability over some ring, and (iii) linear solvability over some module. Analogously, the following are equivalent: (a) scalar linear solvability over some field, (b) scalar linear solvability over some commutative ring, and (c) linear solvability over some module whose ring is commutative. Whenever any network is linearly solvable over a module, a smallest such module arises in a vector linear solution for that network over a field. If a network is scalar linearly solvable over some non-commutative ring but not over any commutative ring, then such a non-commutative ring must have size at least 16, and for some networks, this bound is achieved. An infinite family of networks is demonstrated, each of which is scalar linearly solvable over some non-commutative ring but not over any commutative ring. Whenever is prime and , if a network is scalar linearly solvable over some ring of size , then it is also -dimensional vector linearly solvable over the field , but the converse does not necessarily hold. This result is extended to all $kge 1$ when the ring is commutative.
Autors: Joseph Connelly;Kenneth Zeger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 292 - 308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Programming Bounds for Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Error-Correcting Codes by Split Weight Enumerators
Abstract:
Linear programming approaches have been applied to derive upper bounds on the size of classical and quantum codes. In this paper, we derive similar results for general quantum codes with entanglement assistance by considering a type of split weight enumerator. After deriving the MacWilliams identities for these enumerators, we are able to prove algebraic linear programming bounds, such as the Singleton bound, the Hamming bound, and the first linear programming bound. Our Singleton bound and Hamming bound are more general than the previous bounds for entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes. In addition, we show that the first linear programming bound improves the Hamming bound when the relative distance is sufficiently large. On the other hand, we obtain additional constraints on the size of Pauli subgroups for quantum codes, which allow us to improve the linear programming bounds on the minimum distance of quantum codes of small length. In particular, we show that there is no or stabilizer code. We also discuss the existence of some entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes with maximal entanglement. As a result, the upper and lower bounds on the minimum distance of maximal-entanglement quantum stabilizer codes with length up to 20 are significantly improved.
Autors: Ching-Yi Lai;Alexei Ashikhmin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 622 - 639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linking Fine-Grained Locations in User Comments
Abstract:
Many domain-specific websites host a profile page for each entity (e.g., locations on Foursquare, movies on IMDb, and products on Amazon) for users to post comments on. When commenting on an entity, users often mention other entities for reference or comparison. Compared with web pages and tweets, the problem of disambiguating the mentioned entities in user comments has not received much attention. This paper investigates linking fine-grained locations in Foursquare comments. We demonstrate that the focal location, i.e., the location that a comment is posted on, provides rich contexts for the linking task. To exploit such information, we represent the Foursquare data in a graph, which includes locations, comments, and their relations. A probabilistic model named FocalLink is proposed to estimate the probability that a user mentions a location when commenting on a focal location, by following different kinds of relations. Experimental results show that FocalLink is consistently superior under different collective linking settings.
Autors: Jialong Han;Aixin Sun;Gao Cong;Wayne Xin Zhao;Zongcheng Ji;Minh C. Phan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 59 - 72
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Liquid Dielectric Resonator Antenna With Circular Polarization Reconfigurability
Abstract:
A novel liquid dielectric resonator antenna with circular polarization (CP) reconfigurability is investigated in this communication. The fluidic dielectric for this design is ethyl acetate () which is held by a container fabricated by 3-D printing technology and excited by a single probe. To realize the CP reconfigurability, the container is designed with two zones: left and right zones. Therefore, the proposed antenna can be switched between two different states: when the liquid solution is injected into the left zone, it can realize left hand CP, on the other hand, if the fluidic dielectric is pumped into the right zone, it can obtain right hand CP. Consequently, the CP reconfigurability is obtained by flowing liquid control of the ethyl acetate solution. For demonstration, the proposed antenna is design at 2.4 GHz for RFID application with a broad impedance bandwidth (SWR < 2) of 35.6% which fully cover the wide axial ratio (AR) bandwidth (AR < 3 dB) of 16.3%. Finally, good agreement is achieved between the measurement and simulation.
Autors: Zhe Chen;Hang Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 444 - 449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LLR-Distribution-Based Non-Uniform Quantization for RBI-MSD Algorithm in MLC Flash Memory
Abstract:
Multi-level cell (MLC) technique has been widely used to improve the storage capacity of NAND flash memory at the price of sacrificing some storage reliability. As a type of excellent error-correction codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can significantly enhance the performance of flash memory. However, the conventional decoding algorithms for LDPC codes suffer from the drawback of high complexity. To address this problem, we propose a serial reliability-based iterative min-sum decoding (RBI-MSD) algorithm for LDPC-coded MLC flash memory systems to strike a desirable trade-off between the performance and complexity. Furthermore, we conceive a novel log-likelihood-ratio (LLR)-distribution-based non-uniform quantization method for the RBI-MSD algorithm. Unlike conventional quantization methods, the proposed non-uniform quantization method substantially exploits the distribution characteristics of channel initial LLRs in MLC flash memory. Simulation results indicate that the proposed non-uniform quantization method not only exhibits more excellent error performance than the conventional non-uniform and uniform counterparts, but also is applicable to other RBI decoding algorithms.
Autors: Shijie Ouyang;Guojun Han;Yi Fang;Wenjie Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 45 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Loading the Third Harmonic: A Linear and Efficient Post-Matching Doherty PA
Abstract:
Among the most exciting parts of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium (IMS2017) was the "High-Efficiency Power Amplifier" Student Design Competition (SDC) sponsored by Technical Coordinating Committee MTT-5. This competition focuses on RF power amplifiers (PAs) having both high efficiency and linearity. Competitors are required to design, construct, and measure a high-efficiency PA with a specified linearity at a frequency of their choice between 1 and 10 GHz. The winner is determined by a figure of merit (FOM), with other requirements [1] that must also be satisfied:
Autors: Xin Yu Zhou;Wing Shing Chan;Derek Ho;Shao Yong Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 99 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Gradient Hexa Pattern: A Descriptor for Face Recognition and Retrieval
Abstract:
Local descriptors used in face recognition are robust in a sense that these descriptors perform well in varying pose, illumination, and lighting conditions. The accuracy of these descriptors depends on the precision of mapping the relationship that exists in the local neighborhood of a facial image into microstructures. In this paper, a local gradient hexa pattern is proposed that identifies the relationship among the reference pixel and its neighboring pixels at different distances across different derivative directions. Discriminative information exists in the local neighborhood as well as in different derivative directions. The proposed descriptor effectively transforms these relationships into binary micropatterns discriminating inter-class facial images with optimal precision. The recognition and retrieval performance of the proposed descriptor has been compared with state-of-the-art descriptors, namely, local derivative pattern, local tetra pattern, multiblock local binary pattern, and local vector pattern over the most challenging and benchmark facial image databases, i.e., Cropped Extended Yale B, CMU-PIE, color-FERET, LFW, and Ghallager database. The proposed descriptor has better recognition as well as retrieval rates compared with state-of-the-art descriptors.
Autors: Soumendu Chakraborty;Satish Kumar Singh;Pavan Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 171 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Oscillator Phase-Dependent Linearized Mixer Modeling Based on Large-Signal Vector Measurements
Abstract:
This paper presents a broadband poly-harmonic behavioral model for microwave mixers operating in the linear regime. It is extracted from large-signal vector measurements and predicts the response with respect to an arbitrary local oscillator (LO) phase. The model is capable of estimating the performance of the converted signals and the main mixing products for an intermediate frequency that spans within an a priori defined bandwidth. This paper gives a detailed model analytical treatment along with a discussion of its properties and the description of the characterization method. The model validation is achieved by the characterization of a subharmonic mixer implemented in the hybrid technology that operates with a 2.229-GHz LO, an intermediate frequency bandwidth of 732–754 MHz, and a corresponding radio frequency bandwidth of 5.191–5.211 GHz. Independent experimental validation is achieved by an image rejection mixer composed of two nominally identical mixers, individually characterized by the proposed technique. Validation is concluded with experimental data, demonstrating the model’s capability to deal with a phase-modulated LO signal.
Autors: Alessandro Cidronali;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 81 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Localization of Multiple Targets With Identical Radar Signatures in Multipath Environments With Correlated Blocking
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of localizing an unknown number of targets, all having the same radar signature, by a distributed MIMO radar consisting of single antenna transmitters and receivers that cannot determine directions of departure and arrival. Furthermore, we consider the presence of multipath propagation and the possible (correlated) blocking of the direct paths (going from the transmitter and reflecting off a target to the receiver). In its most general form, this problem can be cast as a Bayesian estimation problem where every multipath component is accounted for. However, when the environment map is unknown, this problem is ill-posed and hence, a tractable approximation is derived where only direct paths are accounted for. In particular, we take into account the correlated blocking by scatterers in the environment which appears as a prior term in the Bayesian estimation framework. A sub-optimal polynomial-time algorithm to solve the Bayesian multi-target localization problem with correlated blocking is proposed and its performance is evaluated using simulations. We found that when correlated blocking is severe, assuming the blocking events to be independent and having constant probability (as was done in previous papers) resulted in poor detection performance, with false alarms more likely to occur than detections.
Autors: Sundar Aditya;Andreas F. Molisch;Naif Rabeah;Hatim Mohammed Behairy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 606 - 618
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Location-Based Millimeter Wave Multi-Level Beamforming Using Compressive Sensing
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel millimeter wave (mmWave) multi-level beamforming (BF) is proposed. User positioning is used for roughly defining the area within which the mobile station (MS) is properly located. Based on this, a multi-level beam search is conducted using compressive sensing-based channel estimation to find out the transmit/receive beams for establishing the mmWave link. The estimated MS location-uncertainty area is used to determine the number of beams along with the beamwidth required for constructing the sensing matrix used in each beam searching level. Mathematical and simulation analysis confirm the superiority of the proposed BF scheme over the conventional ones in both BF complexity and performance.
Autors: Ahmed Abdelreheem;Ehab Mahmoud Mohamed;Hamada Esmaiel;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 185 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Longitudinal Study of Automatic Face Recognition
Abstract:
The two underlying premises of automatic face recognition are uniqueness and permanence. This paper investigates the permanence property by addressing the following: Does face recognition ability of state-of-the-art systems degrade with elapsed time between enrolled and query face images? If so, what is the rate of decline w.r.t. the elapsed time? While previous studies have reported degradations in accuracy, no formal statistical analysis of large-scale longitudinal data has been conducted. We conduct such an analysis on two mugshot databases, which are the largest facial aging databases studied to date in terms of number of subjects, images per subject, and elapsed times. Mixed-effects regression models are applied to genuine similarity scores from state-of-the-art COTS face matchers to quantify the population-mean rate of change in genuine scores over time, subject-specific variability, and the influence of age, sex, race, and face image quality. Longitudinal analysis shows that despite decreasing genuine scores, 99% of subjects can still be recognized at 0.01% FAR up to approximately 6 years elapsed time, and that age, sex, and race only marginally influence these trends. The methodology presented here should be periodically repeated to determine age-invariant properties of face recognition as state-of-the-art evolves to better address facial aging.
Autors: Lacey Best-Rowden;Anil K. Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 148 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low PAPR FBMC
Abstract:
Unlike single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), just combining discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spreading and filter bank multicarrier with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (FBMC-OQAM) results in only marginal peak to average power ratio (PAPR) reduction. To utilize the single carrier effect of DFT spreading, a special condition of the coefficients at each subcarrier’s in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) channels should be satisfied. As a starting point, we first derive this condition, which we call the identically-time-shifted-multicarrier (ITSM) condition. Then, based on this condition, we propose a new type of FBMC for low PAPR. The main features of the proposed scheme are summarized as follows. First, in order to further enhance the amount of PAPR reduction, we generate the four candidate versions of the DFT-spread and ITSM-conditioned FBMC waveform and select the one with minimum peak power. Even with multiple candidate generation, the major computation parts, such as DFT and IDFT are shared and need to be performed only once, unlike the conventional side information (SI)-based PAPR reduction schemes. Consequently, with a fractional complexity overhead compared with the previous DFT-spread FBMC, the proposed scheme achieves a PAPR reduction comparable to that of SC-FDMA. Second, the proposed scheme transmits only two bit SI per data block consisting of multiple FBMC-OQAM symbols. Hence, the SI overhead is significantly low compared with the usual SI-based schemes, such as selective mapping or partial transmit sequence.
Autors: Dongjun Na;Kwonhue Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 182 - 193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Complexity Priority-Aware Interference-Avoidance Scheduling for Multi-user Coexisting Wireless Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, the priority-aware interference-avoidance scheduling for multi-user coexisting wireless networks with heterogeneous traffic demands is addressed. Both admission control and throughput maximization for admitted users are studied. These problems are addressed by a proposed sequential solution framework where at each step a large-scale linear program with a large number of variables is required to be solved. To efficiently solve the large-scale program, an accelerated column generation based method is proposed. In the proposed method, an efficient greedy initialization algorithm is first put forward by exploiting the proposed solution structure. After that, both upper and lower bounds on the optimal objective function of each optimization problem are derived, which are used to significantly alleviate the dependence of the whole solution procedure on deriving optimality of problems. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively and efficiently handle the coexistence of multiple users with heterogeneous priorities and traffic demands.
Autors: Shiwei Huang;Jun Cai;Hongbin Chen;Feng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 112 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Cost Multimode Patch Antenna for Dual MIMO and Enhanced Localization Use
Abstract:
This communication proposes a simple, low-cost multimode patch antenna combining good multi-in multi-out (MIMO) performance with precise angle of arrival (AoA) estimation. The AoA is based on the monopulse antenna concept; however, unlike in radar applications, the necessity for complex circuitry is replaced by the intrinsic properties of even and odd resonant patch modes. This capability is advantageous for future “Internet of Things” antennas, embedded into low-cost and size-constrained devices. The envelope correlation coefficient, measured in an anechoic chamber, is below 1.5%, ensuring good MIMO performance. An exemplary addition to localization algorithm exploiting antenna properties is demonstrated.
Autors: A. Narbudowicz;Max J. Ammann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 405 - 408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Cost Pseudoasynchronous Circuit Design Style With Reduced Exploitable Side Information
Abstract:
Leakage of information through the power supply current has become a major factor in logic design. In this paper, a low cost and simple to employ design methodology dubbed pseudoasynchronous is presented. This design style combines the security advantages of asynchronous circuits with the ease of synchronous circuit design. Randomization and data-dependencies (DD) are utilized to hide information leakage from the current dissipation, and hence making the critical synchronization of power supply current traces hard to do. In addition, randomization and DD are utilized for both time-domain hiding of information leakage during the active region (dynamic currents) and for amplitude-domain hiding of information leakage during the static-region (leakage currents). The main advantages of this new approach are low area cost, reduced signal, and increased noise. Circuit-level analyses show that it is harder to exploit the information leakage from internal signals of the proposed design than from CMOS-based synchronous designs or other forms of time-domain hiding countermeasures.
Autors: Itamar Levi;Alexander Fish;Osnat Keren;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 82 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency Drain Noise Characterization and TCAD Physical Simulations of GaN HEMTs: Identification and Analysis of Physical Location of Traps
Abstract:
In this letter, an investigation of the low-frequency (LF) drain noise characteristics of the GaN/ AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on a SiC substrate has been performed. LF drain noise measurements are performed over the frequency range of 20 Hz–1 MHz by varying chuck temperatures ( between 25°C and 100°C. Furthermore, we present the 2-D TCAD physical simulation analysis of this device. TCAD simulation model has been calibrated using the measured device characteristics, and then, using the calibrated model, LF drain noise simulations have been performed. A good match is observed between drain noise measurements and simulation results, and this physically confirms that two acceptor-like traps with apparent activation energies of 0.51 and 0.57 eV, respectively, below the conduction band are located in the GaN buffer.
Autors: Nandha Kumar Subramani;Julien Couvidat;Ahmad Al Hajjar;Jean-Christophe Nallatamby;Raymond Quéré;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 107 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-PAPR Layered/Enhanced ACO-SCFDM for Optical-Wireless Communications
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose layered/enhanced asymmetrically clipped optical single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (L/E-ACO-SCFDM) for optical-wireless communications. L/E-ACO-SCFDM has a lower computational complexity and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) than L/E-ACO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (L/E-ACO-OFDM). The computational complexity of the simplified transmitter in L/E-ACO-SCFDM with layers is , which is lower than the computational complexity of in L/E-ACO-OFDM. At a complementary cumulative distribution function of , the PAPR of L/E-ACO-SCFDM is approximately 4.2, 3.4, and 2.7 dB lower than that of L/E-ACO-OFDM for 2, 3, and 4 layers, respectively. The simulation results indicate that L/E-ACO-SCFDM has better performance than L/E-ACO-OFDM under the transmitter nonlinearity and multipath fading.
Autors: Ji Zhou;Qi Wang;Qixiang Cheng;Mengqi Guo;Yueming Lu;Aiying Yang;Yaojun Qiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 165 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Rank Plus Sparse Decomposition and Localized Radon Transform for Ship-Wake Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images
Abstract:
The problem in obtaining stable motion estimation of maritime targets is that sea clutter makes wake structure detection and reconnaissance difficult. This letter presents a complete procedure for the automatic estimation of maritime target motion parameters by evaluating the generated Kelvin waves detected in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The algorithm consists in evaluating a dual-stage low-rank plus sparse decomposition (LRSD) assisted by Radon transform (RT) for clutter reduction, sparse object detection, precise wake inclination estimation, and Kelvin wave spectral analysis. The algorithm is based on the robust principal component analysis (RPCA) implemented by convex programming. The LRSD algorithm permits the extrapolation of sparse objects of interest consisting of the maritime targets and the Kelvin pattern from the unchanging low-rank background. This dual-stage RPCA and RT applied to SAR surveillance permits fast detection and enhanced motion parameter estimation of maritime targets.
Autors: Filippo Biondi;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 117 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LQG Control With Minimum Directed Information: Semidefinite Programming Approach
Abstract:
We consider a discrete-time linear–quadratic–Gaussian (LQG) control problem, in which Massey's directed information from the observed output of the plant to the control input is minimized, while required control performance is attainable. This problem arises in several different contexts, including joint encoder and controller design for data-rate minimization in networked control systems. We show that the optimal control law is a linear–Gaussian randomized policy. We also identify the state-space realization of the optimal policy, which can be synthesized by an efficient algorithm based on semidefinite programming. Our structural result indicates that the filter–controller separation principle from the LQG control theory and the sensor–filter separation principle from the zero-delay rate-distortion theory for Gauss–Markov sources hold simultaneously in the considered problem. A connection to the data-rate theorem for mean-square stability by Nair and Evans is also established.
Autors: Takashi Tanaka;Peyman Mohajerin Esfahani;Sanjoy K. Mitter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 37 - 52
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LSTMVis: A Tool for Visual Analysis of Hidden State Dynamics in Recurrent Neural Networks
Abstract:
Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVis, a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows users to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with structural annotations from their domain. We show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on dataset containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis. We characterize the domain, the different stakeholders, and their goals and tasks. Long-term usage data after putting the tool online revealed great interest in the machine learning community.
Autors: Hendrik Strobelt;Sebastian Gehrmann;Hanspeter Pfister;Alexander M. Rush;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 667 - 676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Machining-Based Coverage Path Planning for Automated Structural Inspection
Abstract:
The automation of robotically delivered nondestructive evaluation inspection shares many aims with traditional manufacture machining. This paper presents a new hardware and software system for automated thickness mapping of large-scale areas, with multiple obstacles, by employing computer-aided drawing (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-inspired path planning to implement control of a novel mobile robotic thickness mapping inspection vehicle. A custom postprocessor provides the necessary translation from CAM numeric code through robotic kinematic control to combine and automate the overall process. The generalized steps to implement this approach for any mobile robotic platform are presented herein and applied, in this instance, to a novel thickness mapping crawler. The inspection capabilities of the system were evaluated on an indoor mock-inspection scenario, within a motion tracking cell, to provide quantitative performance figures for positional accuracy. Multiple thickness defects simulating corrosion features on a steel sample plate were combined with obstacles to be avoided during the inspection. A minimum thickness mapping error of 0.21 mm and a mean path error of 4.41 mm were observed for a 2 m2 carbon steel sample of 10-mm nominal thickness. The potential of this automated approach has benefits in terms of repeatability of area coverage, obstacle avoidance, and reduced path overlap, all of which directly lead to increased task efficiency and reduced inspection time of large structural assets.

Note to Practitioners—Current industrial robotic inspection approaches largely consist of a manual control of robotic platform motion to desired points, with the aim of producing a number of straight scans for larger areas, often spaced meters apart. The structures featuring large surface area and multiple obstacles are routinely inspected with such manual approaches, which are both labor intensive and error p- one, and do not guarantee acquisition of full area coverage. The presented system addresses these limitations through a combined hardware and software approach. Core to the operation of the system is a fully wireless, differential drive crawler with integrated active ultrasonic wheel probe, to provide remote thickness mapping. Automation of the path generation algorithms is produced using the commercial CAD/CAM software algorithms, and this paper sets out an adaptable methodology for producing a custom postprocessor to convert the exported G-codes to suitable kinematic commands for mobile robotic platforms. The differential drive crawler is used in this paper to demonstrate the process. This approach has benefits in terms of improved industrial standardization and operational repeatability. The inspection capabilities of the system were documented on an indoor mock-inspection scenario, within a motion tracking cell to provide quantitative performance figures for the approach. Future work is required to integrate the on-board positioning strategies, removing the dependence on global systems, for full automated deployment capability.

Autors: Charles Norman Macleod;Gordon Dobie;Stephen Gareth Pierce;Rahul Summan;Maxim Morozov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 202 - 213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Particle Imaging for Quantification of Vascular Stenoses: A Phantom Study
Abstract:
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising new tomographic imaging method to detect the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential of MPI to quantify artificial stenoses in vessel phantoms. Custom-made stenosis phantoms (length 40 mm; inner diameter 8 mm) with different degrees of stenosis (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were scanned in a custom-built MPI scanner (in-plane resolution: ~1–1.5 mm and field of view: 65 29 29 mm3). Phantoms were filled with diluted Feru-carbotran [SPIO agent, 5 mmol (Fe)/l]. Each measurement (overall acquisition time: 20 ms per image, 400 averages) was repeated ten times to assess reproducibility. The MPI signal was used for semi-automatic stenosis quantification. Two stenosis evaluation approaches were compared based on the signal intensity profile alongside the stenosis phantoms. Using a novel multi-step image evaluation approach, MPI allowed for accurate quantification of different stenosis grades. While low grade stenoses were slightly over-estimated, high grade stenoses were slightly underestimated. In particular, the 0%, 25%, and 50% stenosis phantoms revealed a 6.2% ± 0.8, 25.7% ± 1.0, and 48.0% ± 1.5 stenosis, respectively. The higher grade 75% stenosis phantom revealed a 73.3% ± 2.8 and the 100% stenosis phantom a 95.8%± 1.9 stenosis. MPI accu- ately visualized and quantified different stenosis grades in vessel phantoms with high reproducibility demonstrating its great potential for fast and radiation-free preclinical cardiovascular imaging.
Autors: S. Herz;P. Vogel;T. Kampf;M. A. Rückert;S. Veldhoen;V. C. Behr;T. A. Bley;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 61 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Properties of Hexagonal Barium Ferrite Films on Pt(111)/Al2O3(0001) Substrate Based on Optimized Thickness of Pt
Abstract:
In this study, hexagonal barium ferrite thin films have been deposited on Pt(111)/Al2O3(0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The thickness of Pt dependence of crystallographic structure and magnetic properties has been studied. X-ray diffraction θ-2θ reveals the films have a good c-axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. Furthermore, pole figure analysis discovers that the crystallinity of films is greatly improved by Pt buffer layer and the highest degree of orientation is prepared at 20-nm-thick Pt. It is also observed from scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy that the BaM film with 20-nm-thick Pt is formed as hexagonal shaped and has smaller than 2 nm of roughness. Magnetic hysteresis loops show the saturation magnetization (), coercivity (), and uniaxial anisotropy field ( ) are greatly depended on the thickness of Pt buffer layer. Consequently, films with 20-nm Pt buffer layer have the highest of and of 16.7 kOe which are comparable with the theoretical value of BaM bulk.
Autors: Hui Zheng;Mangui Han;Yanhui Wu;Liang Zheng;Wenjing Zhao;Longjiang Deng;Huibin Qin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 56 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Management of the ITER Buildings Configuration for the Construction and Installation Phase
Abstract:
The ITER project consists of a wide range of complex systems and interfaces which needs to be configured and controlled over the lifetime of the project with a comprehensive configuration management in place. The different maturities of the systems and their schedule need to be integrated in the overall project schedule in order to allow the project to stay in planned cost and schedule. The interfaces have to be advanced for those systems that are still in conceptual design phase to have sufficient information to advance with the systems facing the manufacturing readiness review (MRR). In order to achieve the project objectives, the structure of the ITER Organization (IO) Central Team (CT) is being adapted toward the ongoing construction phase on site as well as in the domestic agencies (DA) with a streamlined organization. Area manager posts have been created for all buildings, the site and the tokamak machine in order to have a prompt decision-making in design and construction phase following project change requests, system deviation requests, and field change requests. Weekly meetings are held between the IO CT with the DA and their contractors to feed the proposed modifications in the project baseline documentation including the associated cost and schedule impact. In parallel the project is preparing the installation phase of the machine and the plant systems layout in identifying the systems required for the first plasma, but also those which are “captive” and need to be installed during the civil works of the building. The schedule for each building and level has been developed to review the required duration and manpower in each area. As the installation of the systems and components will start at the defined ready for equipment dates for each areas and levels, the co-activities among the contractors have to be agreed.
Autors: Ingo Kuehn;Jean-Jacques Cordier;Christophe Baylard;Miikka Kotamaki;Laurent Patisson;Jens Reich;William Ring;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 194 - 200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Managing Programmers, with Ron Lichty
Abstract:
Veteran software manager Ron Lichty joins Nate Black to share his insights on managing software engineers. Nate and Ron delve into what about this is hard, how to grow as a manager, and what makes highly performing teams.
Autors: Nate Black;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 117 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Massive MIMO Has Unlimited Capacity
Abstract:
The capacity of cellular networks can be improved by the unprecedented array gain and spatial multiplexing offered by Massive MIMO. Since its inception, the coherent interference caused by pilot contamination has been believed to create a finite capacity limit, as the number of antennas goes to infinity. In this paper, we prove that this is incorrect and an artifact from using simplistic channel models and suboptimal precoding/combining schemes. We show that with multicell MMSE precoding/combining and a tiny amount of spatial channel correlation or large-scale fading variations over the array, the capacity increases without bound as the number of antennas increases, even under pilot contamination. More precisely, the result holds when the channel covariance matrices of the contaminating users are asymptotically linearly independent, which is generally the case. If also the diagonals of the covariance matrices are linearly independent, it is sufficient to know these diagonals (and not the full covariance matrices) to achieve an unlimited asymptotic capacity.
Autors: Emil Björnson;Jakob Hoydis;Luca Sanguinetti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 574 - 590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Max-Min Fairness Rate Control in Wireless Networks: Optimality and Algorithms by Perron-Frobenius Theory
Abstract:
Rate adaptation and power control are two key resource allocation mechanisms in multiuser wireless networks. In the presence of interference, how do we jointly optimize end-to-end source rates and link powers to achieve weighted max-min rate fairness for all sources in the network? This optimization problem is hard to solve as physical layer link rate functions are nonlinear, nonconvex, and coupled in the transmit powers. We show that the weighted max-min rate fairness problem can, in fact, be decoupled into separate fairness problems for flow rate and power control. For a large class of physical layer link rate functions, we characterize the optimal solution analytically by a nonlinear Perron-Frobenius theory through solving a conditional eigenvalue problem that captures the interaction of multiuser interference. We propose an iterative algorithm to compute the optimal flow rate that converges geometrically fast without any parameter configuration. Numerical results demonstrate that our iterative algorithm is computationally fast for the Shannon capacity, CDMA, and piecewise link rate functions.
Autors: Liang Zheng;Desmond W. H. Cai;Chee Wei Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 127 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Maximum-Likelihood Frequency and Phasor Estimations for Electric Power Grid Monitoring
Abstract:
In this paper, new frequency and phasor estimators are presented. These estimators are based on the maximum-likelihood technique and exploit the multidimensional nature of electrical signals. To minimize the likelihood function, we present an optimization algorithm based on the Newton–Raphson technique. While the performance of Fourier-based estimators significantly degrades when the window length is not equal to a multiple of the fundamental half-period, the proposed estimators perform well regardless of the window length. Simulation results show that the proposed estimators clearly outperform the discrete-time Fourier transform in terms of total vector error and frequency error whatever the signal-to-noise ratio, harmonic and interharmonic distortion, and off-nominal frequency deviation are. The benefits of the proposed estimators are also illustrated with real power system data obtained from the DOE/EPRI National Database of power system events.
Autors: Zakarya Oubrahim;Vincent Choqueuse;Yassine Amirat;Mohamed El Hachemi Benbouzid;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 167 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurement-Based Dynamic Load Modeling Using the Vector Fitting Technique
Abstract:
Accurate load modeling is essential for power system stability analysis and control. This topic has regained interest, due to the high penetration of new types of loads and the increased availability of measurements in extended power grids. In this paper, an aggregated load model based on measurement data is formulated for dynamic simulations of large power systems. The proposed model employs variable-order transfer functions, enabling the accurate simulation of complex load dynamics. A complete methodology for the automatic derivation of the minimum-required model order is proposed with the model parameters calculated via a robust multisignal identification procedure. For this purpose, the vector fitting method is introduced as a technique for measurement-based load modeling. Several simulations are performed using the NEPLAN software to investigate the accuracy and the generalization capabilities of the proposed model. The model performance is thoroughly compared with other conventional load models, also using measurements recorded on a laboratory-scale microgrid.
Autors: Eleftherios O. Kontis;Theofilos A. Papadopoulos;Andreas I. Chrysochos;Grigoris K. Papagiannis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 338 - 351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanical Contact-Less Computational Speed Sensing Approach of PWM Operated PMDC Brushed Motor: A Slotting-Effect and Commutation Phenomenon Incorporated Semi-Analytical Dynamic Model-Based Approach
Abstract:
This brief proposes a mechanical contact-less speed sensing approach for a pulse width modulation (PWM) operated permanent-magnet direct current (PMDC) brushed motor. A recently reported semi-analytical dynamic model which incorporates the space-domain effects, namely slotting-effect and commutation phenomenon, has been taken into consideration to apply the proposed computational speed sensing approach. This speed sensing approach is basically an indirect estimation process and discrete in manner. The proposed method is efficiently applicable at higher range of speed. Zones of estimations with varying load torque and PWM duty cycle are represented with appropriate responses. A simulation of the proposed estimation method is applied over the dynamic semi-analytical model of 24 V, 12 teeth-slots, 100 W PMDC brushed motor, and various responses are represented in this brief.
Autors: Suman Ghosh;Mousam Ghosh;Goutam Kumar Panda;Pradip Kumar Saha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 81 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanical Impedance of the Ankle During the Terminal Stance Phase of Walking
Abstract:
Human joint impedance describes the dynamic relationship between perturbation induced change in position and the resulting response torque. Understanding the natural regulation of ankle impedance during locomotion is necessary to discern how humans interact with their environments, and provide a foundation for the design of biomimetic assistive devices and their control systems. This paper estimates ankle impedance during terminal stance phase of walking using a parametric model consisting of stiffness, damping, and inertia. The model accurately described ankle torque, accounting for 90% ± 7.7% of the variance. Stiffness was found to decrease from 3.7 to 2.1 Nm/rad/kg between 75% and 85% stance. Quasi-stiffness—the slope of the ankle’s torque-angle curve—showed a similar decreasing trend but was significantly larger at the onset of terminal stance phase. The damping component of impedance was constant during terminal stance phase, and was increased relative to values previously reported during early and mid-stance phases, indicating an increase in damping in preparation for toe-off. Inertia estimates were consistent with previously reported inertia values for the human ankle. This paper bridges a gap in our understanding of ankle impedance during walking, and provides new insight into how ankle impedance is regulated during regions when substantial mechanical energy is added.
Autors: Amanda L. Shorter;Elliott J. Rouse;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 135 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanical Technique to Customize a Waveguide-Slot Radiating Performance
Abstract:
A mechanical technique to tune the radiating performance of a waveguide-fed slot is presented. Three metallic tuning screws are introduced through the bottom wall of the feeding waveguide. The field radiated by the slot is mechanically controlled with the insertion length of the tuning screws and a good input matching response is also maintained. One of the tuning screws modifies the slot coupling parameter as well as the phase of the transmitted signal, while the other pair of screws compensates the impedance mismatch introduced by the first one. A five-element traveling-wave (TW) linear array antenna has been designed and manufactured as a proof of concept to validate the performance of the tuning screws. Several improvements such as a main beam steering range of 17°, an enhancement of the antenna efficiency, the mitigation of the undesirable grating lobe appearance typical of TW air-waveguide-fed arrays, as well as the compensation of the mutual coupling effects or manufacturing tolerance errors could be experimentally achieved by using the proposed mechanism based on tuning screws.
Autors: P. Sanchez-Olivares;J. L. Masa-Campos;J. Hernandez-Ortega;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 426 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Medical delivery drones take flight in east africa
Abstract:
While Amazon and United Parcel Service pour considerable resources into finding ways of using drones to deliver such things as shoes and dog treats, Zipline has been saving lives in Rwanda since October 2016 with drones that deliver blood. Zipline's autonomous fixedwing drones now form an integral part of Rwanda's medical-supply
Autors: Evan Ackerman;Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 34 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Meetings calendar
Abstract:
Provides a listing of future meetings.
Autors: Davide Fabiani;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 68 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Megi Typhoon Monitoring by X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Measurements
Abstract:
In this study, typhoon monitoring is addressed using X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery collected by the German TerraSAR-X mission and the Italian COSMO-SkyMed constellation during the typhoon Megi. Geometrical features, rain rate, and wind speed associated with the typhoon are retrieved by the SAR data set. One of the key benefits of the X-band observations relies in their sensitivity to rain that can be exploited to provide an estimate of geometrical features and rain rate by analyzing attenuation bands present in the SAR data. In addition, wind speed is retrieved using a rain-free model based on two geophysical model functions (GMFs) and experimental results show that the nonlinear relationship between normalized radar cross section and wind speed provided by one of the GMFs can be exploited to provide a rough estimate of high wind speeds.
Autors: Valeria Corcione;Ferdinando Nunziata;Maurizio Migliaccio;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 184 - 194
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Memory-Based Architecture for Multicharacter Aho–Corasick String Matching
Abstract:
The Aho–Corasick (AC) string matching algorithm is commonly used in signature-based intrusion detection and antivirus systems. In this paper, we present a hardware implementation of the AC algorithm that can process multiple characters per cycle. State transitions are implemented using table lookup. Hence, updates to the pattern set do not require hardware reconfiguration. A fundamental issue of multicharacter AC string matching is the transition rules explosion problem. We apply the transition rule reduction strategy such that the number of transition rules can be reduced to less than two rules per state in the finite automaton. The memory cost is further optimized by implementing the rule table as near-minimal perfect hash table. We implement the proposed method on a virtex-7 FPGA for a pattern set with 2200 Snort signatures. The normalized memory cost of our design is 13.75 bytes per character of the pattern set when four characters are processed per cycle, and the FPGA can operate at 216 MHz.
Autors: Xing Wang;Derek Pao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 143 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Message from the Editor-in-Chief
Abstract:
Welcome to the January 2018 issue of the IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)! I am pleased to introduce this special issue containing 99 papers presented at IEEE VIS 2017, which includes the Conference on Visual Analytics Science and Technology (IEEE VAST 2017), the IEEE Information Visualization Conference (IEEE InfoVis 2017), and the IEEE Scientific Visualization Conference (IEEE SciVis 2017), held in Phoenix, USA, from the 1st to the 6th of October 2017. These papers, selected from 467 submissions, were recommended for acceptance by the Program Committees of these three conferences, after having undergone a rigorous and competitive two-round review process. The cooperation between TVCG and IEEE VIS has been considerably growing over the years in terms of the number of publications in the TVCG IEEE VIS special issue, and of the size of attendance to IEEE VIS. This special hybrid publication model enables timely dissemination of many high-quality research results from the world’s top visualization conferences to TVCG readership, while improving the overall visibility and quality of IEEE VIS publications through a rigorous journal-style review. Since 2011, the authors of TVCG regular papers have been invited to give an oral presentation of their recent work at IEEE VIS, thus providing a unique opportunity for the VIS audience to keep abreast of high-quality visualization research featured in regular issues of TVCG, and encouraging more TVCG authors to attend IEEE VIS. This closely coupled relation-ship between TVCG and VIS has been leading to a more timely exchange of new ideas, to a rapid dissemination of visualization research via an integrated forum for both publications and presentations, and to further expanding our visualization community.
Autors: Leila De Floriani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: x - x
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Metal–Insulator Transition of Ge–Sb–Te Superlattice: An Electron Counting Model Study
Abstract:
Ge–Sb–Te superlattice (GST-SL) is a newly emerging electronic material for nonvolatile phase-change memory with ultralow energy cost. However, its switching mechanism is still unclear with intensive debates. In this work, by first-principles calculations and an electron counting model study, we study the possible mechanism of phase change and the accompanying property transition of GST-SL. GST-SL are separated into individual layers by van der Waals gaps. We demonstrate that both the global chemical stoichiometry of the material and the local chemical stoichiometry of individual layer block are required to have an insulating band gap according to an electron counting model analysis. The electrical property can be adjusted by changing the local stoichiometry, such as producing defects around van der Waals gaps. Inspired by a previous experiment, we propose that a stacking-fault motion can spontaneously alter the band gap and results in a metal–insulator transition. This transition may provide a significant change of carrier concentration and indicate an ultralow energy-consumption process with a low energy barrier. The present investigations reveal a picture of electrical transition in GST-SL and may guide us to improve its device performances.
Autors: Nian-Ke Chen;Xian-Bin Li;Xue-Peng Wang;Sheng-Yi Xie;Wei Quan Tian;Shengbai Zhang;Hong-Bo Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 140 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Micro-Grating Array-Enabled Power Efficiency Improvement for a DMD-Based Optical Switch
Abstract:
Digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based optical switch can dynamically change the channels reallocation and provide flexibility in optical networking with the advantages of fast time response and scalable port number. However, the DMD as a binary diffraction device has a limited efficiency of 10.1% at the +1st diffraction order. Here we propose and demonstrate a DMD-based optical switch with improved efficiency enabled by a blazed micro-grating array. The blazed micro-grating array is designed and fabricated to diffract and make use of the wasted −1st order beams of the DMD. Using this device, we achieve ~2 dB efficiency improvements for a optical switch with all switching states. We experimentally demonstrate high speed switching of channels carrying 15 and 30 Gb/s ON-OFF keying signals. The micro-grating array has the potential to develop for the DMD-based optical switch with multiple channels.
Autors: Chuanwu Yang;Ting Lei;Xiaocong Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 145 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Micropatterned Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Mode With Dual Threshold Voltages for Improved Off-Axis Gamma Distortion
Abstract:
We proposed an eight-domain vertical alignment (VA) liquid crystal (LC) mode, operated by dual pixel domains of fishbone-structured electrodes for dual threshold (F-DT) voltages in the VA mode, which can improve off-axis gamma distortions without additional electronic circuits and fabrication procedures compared with the conventional multidomain VA modes. In the proposed F-DT VA mode, different threshold voltage levels can be obtained for the main- and subpixel regions by utilizing different field-induced LC reorientations determined by the pixel electrode structures, whose properties are especially enhanced in low-voltage regimes. When the relative area ratio () between the main- and subpixel domains was , these dual threshold properties of the F-DT VA mode improved the off-axis gamma distortion index (GDI) value up to 34.04% at the oblique viewing condition of , compared to the conventional patterned VA (PVA) modes, while maintaining the maximum transmittance level. The proposed pixel electrode design scheme could be applied to further improve the GDI value simply by controlling , where the GDI of the F-DT VA mode was improved by 39.17% and 17.05% at , compared to the conventional PVA and micropatterned VA modes, respectively.
Autors: Young-Chul Shin;Min-Kyu Park;Byeonggon Kim;Jeong Min Bae;Hak-Rin Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 150 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microprocessor Optimizations for the Internet of Things: A Survey
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a pervasive presence of interconnected and uniquely identifiable physical devices. These devices’ goal is to gather data and drive actions in order to improve productivity, and ultimately reduce or eliminate reliance on human intervention for data acquisition, interpretation, and use. The proliferation of these connected low-power devices will result in a data explosion that will significantly increase data transmission costs with respect to energy consumption and latency. Edge computing reduces these costs by performing computations at the edge nodes, prior to data transmission, to interpret and/or utilize the data. While much research has focused on the IoT’s connected nature and communication challenges, the challenges of IoT embedded computing with respect to device microprocessors has received much less attention. This paper explores IoT applications’ execution characteristics from a microarchitectural perspective and the microarchitectural characteristics that will enable efficient and effective edge computing. To tractably represent a wide variety of next-generation IoT applications, we present a broad IoT application classification methodology based on application functions, to enable quicker workload characterizations for IoT microprocessors. We then survey and discuss potential microarchitectural optimizations and computing paradigms that will enable the design of right-provisioned microprocessors that are efficient, configurable, extensible, and scalable. This paper provides a foundation for the analysis and design of a diverse set of microprocessor architectures for next-generation IoT devices.
Autors: Tosiron Adegbija;Anita Rogacs;Chandrakant Patel;Ann Gordon-Ross;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 7 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microstrip-Ridge Gap Waveguide Filter Based on Cavity Resonators With Mushroom Inclusions
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel microstrip-ridge gap waveguide (MS-RGW) filter configuration, which is based on cavity resonators with mushroom inclusions. The resonators are realized as defects in surrounding mushroom-based perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), and thus, the filter configuration does not require additional conductive layers nor rearrangement of the PMC elements. The hosting MS-RGW is fed through transition from SMA to microstrip ridge, enabling simple fabrication and excellent impedance matching in a wide frequency range. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed structure, four narrowband filters have been designed, fabricated, and measured. The filters exhibit excellent in-band characteristics and small dimensions.
Autors: Slobodan Birgermajer;Nikolina Janković;Vasa Radonić;Vesna Crnojević-Bengin;Maurizio Bozzi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 136 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microw(h)att?! Ultralow-Power Six-Port Radar: Realizing Highly Integrated Portable Radar Systems with Good Motion Sensitivity at Relatively Low Cost
Abstract:
Short-range noncontact microwave radar systems have undergone significant development in recent years [1]. Driven by advances in modern monolithic microwave integrated circuitry, printed circuit board (PCB) technologies, and embedded computing, highly integrated portable radar systems with good motion sensitivity can today be realized at relatively low cost. Radar systems have emerged in a variety of new application fields including industrial sensing [2], [3], human vital-sign detection [4], [5], and structural health monitoring [6].
Autors: Fabian Lurz;Fabian Michler;Benedict Scheiner;Robert Weigel;Alexander Koelpin;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 91 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Imaging of Subcutaneous Vasculature With Near-Field RF Excitation
Abstract:
Imaging of subcutaneous vasculature is of great interest for biometric security and point-of-care medicine. We investigate the feasibility of microwave-induced thermoacoustic (TA) tomography as a safe, compact, low-power, and cost-effective imaging technique for subcutaneous vasculature by means of application-specific design of near-field, radio frequency (RF) applicators. Using commercial transducers, we demonstrate proof-of-concept TA imaging of synthetic phantoms, plant vasculature, and earthworm blood vessels with only 50 W of peak power, or 42 mW average power, at 300 resolution. The proposed RF applicator design enabled uniform, orientation-independent illumination of vasculature phantoms with only 10% variation. Finally, we show that the benefits of microwave contrast make possible the distinction of actual blood vessels, in an earthworm, from surrounding tissue within a modest receiver dynamic range of 40 dB.
Autors: Miaad S. Aliroteh;Amin Arbabian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 577 - 588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter-Wave TE20-Mode SIW Dual-Slot-Fed Patch Antenna Array With a Compact Differential Feeding Network
Abstract:
A millimeter-wave series–parallel patch antenna array is presented, in which the dual-slot feeding structure is handily implemented using the intrinsic field distribution of TE20 mode in substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW). One 28 GHz patch antenna element fed by the TE20-mode SIW is first designed, achieving a 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 10.2% and a simulated peak gain of 6.48 dBi. Based on the antenna element, a array with a compact series–parallel differential feeding network is developed accordingly. Due to the novel compact SIW-based series–parallel feeding network, the antenna array can achieve superior radiation performances, which is the highlight of this communication. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed antenna array are in good agreement, demonstrating a performance of 8.5% impedance bandwidth, 19.1 dBi peak gain, symmetrical radiation patterns, and low cross-polarization levels (−30 dB in E-plane and −25 dB in H-plane) in the operating frequency band of 26.65–29.14 GHz.
Autors: Huayan Jin;Wenquan Che;Kuo-Sheng Chin;Wanchen Yang;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 456 - 461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Min–Max Time Consensus Tracking With Communication Guarantee
Abstract:
In this paper, a collection of double integrator agents with bounded inputs is considered. Communication is possible between any two agents only if the inter-agent distance is less than a fixed threshold. A special node, referred to as the “leader,” generates an unknown reference trajectory to which all the other agents are required to converge in the shortest possible time. Assuming the initial communication graph to be connected, a directed spanning tree rooted at the leader is identified using a local algorithm. The dynamics of any two agents connected by an edge in the selected tree are modeled as a time-optimal pursuit–evasion game, while maintaining the inter-agent communication link. Using the corresponding feedback saddle-point strategies, local min–max time control laws for each pair of agents are formulated. For the selected tree, the proposed collection of local min–max time control strategies is shown to be the communication preserving global min–max time strategy.
Autors: Ameer K. Mulla;Debraj Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 132 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mind games
Abstract:
"Wake up, this is not a test," intones a voice as the virtual reality game Awakening begins. Your game character is a child trapped in a nefarious government lab, and as you scan the room you see a variety of objects lying on the floor, each flashing with light. You focus your mental attention on a block, and it rises up and rotates in the air before you. Then you focus on a mirror on the wall, and the block hurtles toward it and smashes the glass, revealing a scrawled sequence of numbers beneath. You notice a keypad by the door with numbers that are also subtly flashing. Using only your Jedi powers, you focus on certain digits in the correct sequence to open the door.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 40 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MINLP Probabilistic Scheduling Model for Demand Response Programs Integrated Energy Hubs
Abstract:
In this paper, an optimal probabilistic scheduling model of energy hubs operations is presented. The scheduling of energy hub determines the energy carriers to be purchased as input and converted or stored, in order to meet the energy requests, while minimizing the total hub's cost. However, as many other engineering endeavors, future operating criteria of energy hubs could not be forecasted with certainty. Load and price uncertainties are the most unclear parameters that hub operators deal with. In this regard, this paper proposes a 2 + 1 point estimation probabilistic scheduling scheme for energy hubs with multiple energy inputs and outputs. One of the applicable tools of energy hubs to have an efficient participation in the liberalized power market with volatile prices is demand response programs (DRPs). While there is plenty of experience in investigating the effect of DRP, it is electricity DRP that receives increasing attention by research and industry. Therefore, the proposed DRP investigates the effect of both responsive thermal and electric loads in reducing the total cost and participation of different facilities in supplying multiple loads. The proposed model envisages the most technical constraints of converters and storages. Several test systems have been investigated in order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results verify the capability of the proposed model in covering the energy hub time-varying output demands as well as the economic advantages of implementing the suggested strategy. In addition, the results are compared with 2 point estimate method and Monte Carlo simulation.
Autors: Manijeh Alipour;Kazem Zare;Mehdi Abapour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 79 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigating BTI-Induced Degradation in STT-MRAM Sensing Schemes
Abstract:
Spin-transfer torque magnetic RAM (STT-MRAM), which uses a magnetic tunnel junction to store binary data, is a promising memory technology. With many benefits, such as low leakage power, high density, high endurance, and nonvolatility, it has been explored as an SRAM replacement for cache design or a DRAM replacement for main memory. Meanwhile, along with the continuous shrinking of CMOS process technology, the bias temperature instability (BTI) effect has become a major reliability issue. Prior work has investigated the influence of the BTI effect on the SRAM sense amplifier, but no investigation has been done for the STT-MRAM sense amplifier. Therefore, this paper investigates the BTI effect on STT-MRAM sense amplifiers. We propose a majority-based technique and an alternative sensing technique to reduce circuit degradation. To further improve sensing delay, we propose using forward body bias (FBB) on an access transistor with a positive voltage. Extensive simulation results are done to show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 10.61% and 4.35%, respectively, on average, with the majority-based technique. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 4.42% and 1.83%, respectively, on average, using the alternative sensing technique. The sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be reduced by 15.37% and 6.25%, respectively, on average, by using both techniques simultaneously. When using the majority-based and alternative sensing techniques with the FBB technique, the sensing delay for reading zeros and ones can be improved by 29.93% and 57.67%, respectively, on average. We also analyze the BTI-induced degradation of a high-performance sense amplifier and a low power sense amplifier with the proposed techniques. The simulatio- results show that our proposed technique and simulation flow can be easily extended to other sense amplifiers.
Autors: Ing-Chao Lin;Yun Kae Law;Yuan Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 50 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigating Power Fluctuations in Electric Ship Propulsion With Hybrid Energy Storage System: Design and Analysis
Abstract:
Shipboard electric propulsion systems experience large power and torque fluctuations on their drive shaft due to propeller rotational motion and waves. This paper explores new solutions to address these fluctuations by integrating a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) and exploring energy management (EM) strategies. The HESS combines battery packs with ultracapacitor banks. Two strategies for real-time EM of HESS are considered: one splits the power demand such that high- and low-frequency power fluctuations are compensated by ultracapacitors and batteries, respectively; another considers the HESS as a single entity and designs an EM strategy to coordinate the operations of the ultracapacitors and batteries. For both strategies, model predictive control is used to address power tracking and energy saving under various operating constraints. To quantitatively analyze the performance of HESS and its associated controls, a propeller and ship dynamic model, which captures the underlying physical behavior, is established to support the control development and system optimization. Power fluctuation mitigation and HESS loss minimization, the main objectives, are evaluated in different sea conditions. Simulation results show that the coordination within HESS provides substantial benefits in terms of reducing fluctuations and losses.
Autors: Jun Hou;Jing Sun;Heath F. Hofmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 93 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixing It Up: A Double-Balanced Mixer with Wide RF and IF Bandwidth
Abstract:
This article presents the design details of a wide-band, high-dynamic-range passive gallium arsenide (GaAs) mixer submitted for the Student Design Competition (SDC) held during the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium in Honolulu, Hawaii, this past May. The target of our research was to achieve a wide-band mixer with high dynamic range and zero power consumption. The "High-Dynamic-Range Mixer" SDC was sponsored by Technical Coordination Committee MTT-22.
Autors: Tiedi Zhang;Xiansuo Liu;Yuehang Xu;Lei Wang;Ruimin Xu;Bo Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 106 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ML-Based Iterative Approach for Blind Frequency Domain Equalization and Combination Over Sparse Channels
Abstract:
This letter deals with blind spatial diversity equalization and combination of sparse channels. The equalization and combination problem of multiple signals is modeled as the maximum likelihood estimation of frequency domain symbol sequence from incomplete observations, and solved by means of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Closed-form expression of the equalization output is obtained, which shows that the complicated problem of signal equalization and combination in multipath channels is converted to the weighted summation of each discrete-frequency signals, eliminating the need of complicated maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) or de-convolution demanded by time domain equalization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables evident performance improvement in terms of symbol error rate especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values and short signal lengths compared with a typical scheme.
Autors: Kai Zhang;Hongyi Yu;Yunpeng Hu;Zhixiang Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 193 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mode-Target Games: Reactive Synthesis for Control Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a class of linear temporal logic (LTL) specifications for which the problem of synthesizing controllers can be solved in polynomial time. The new class of specifications is an LTL fragment that we term Mode Target (MT) and is inspired by numerous control applications where there are modes and corresponding (possibly multiple) targets for each mode. We formulate the problem of synthesizing a controller enforcing an MT specification as a game and provide an algorithm that requires symbolic steps, where is the number of states in the game graph, and is the number of targets corresponding to mode .
Autors: Ayca Balkan;Moshe Vardi;Paulo Tabuada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 196 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Compression and Acceleration for Deep Neural Networks: The Principles, Progress, and Challenges
Abstract:
In recent years, deep neural networks (DNNs) have received increased attention, have been applied to different applications, and achieved dramatic accuracy improvements in many tasks. These works rely on deep networks with millions or even billions of parameters, and the availability of graphics processing units (GPUs) with very high computation capability plays a key role in their success. For example, Krizhevsky et al. [1] achieved breakthrough results in the 2012 ImageNet Challenge using a network containing 60 million parameters with five convolutional layers and three fully connected layers. Usually, it takes two to three days to train the whole model on the ImagetNet data set with an NVIDIA K40 machine. In another example, the top face-verification results from the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) data set were obtained with networks containing hundreds of millions of parameters, using a mix of convolutional, locally connected, and fully connected layers [2], [3]. It is also very time-consuming to train such a model to obtain a reasonable performance. In architectures that only rely on fully connected layers, the number of parameters can grow to billions [4].
Autors: Yu Cheng;Duo Wang;Pan Zhou;Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 126 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Free iPID Control for Glycemia Regulation of Type-1 Diabetes
Abstract:
Objective: The objective is to design a fully automated glycemia controller of Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) in both fasting and postprandial phases on a large number of virtual patients. Methods: A model-free intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (iPID) is used to infuse insulin. The feasibility of iPID is tested in silico on two simulators with and without measurement noise. The first simulator is derived from a long-term linear time-invariant model. The controller is also validated on the UVa/Padova metabolic simulator on 10 adults under 25 runs/subject for noise robustness test. Results: It was shown that without measurement noise, iPID mimicked the normal pancreatic secretion with a relatively fast reaction to meals as compared to a standard PID. With the UVa/Padova simulator, the robustness against CGM noise was tested. A higher percentage of time in target was obtained with iPID as compared to standard PID with reduced time spent in hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Two different T1D simulators tests showed that iPID detects meals and reacts faster to meal perturbations as compared to a classic PID. The intelligent part turns the controller to be more aggressive immediately after meals without neglecting safety. Further research is suggested to improve the computation of the intelligent part of iPID for such systems under actuator constraints. Any improvement can impact the overall performance of the model-free controller. Significance: The simple structure iPID is a step for PID-like controllers since it combines the classic PID nice properties with new adaptive features.
Autors: Taghreed MohammadRidha;Mourad Aït-Ahmed;Lucy Chaillous;Michel Krempf;Isabelle Guilhem;Jean-Yves Poirier;Claude H. Moog;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 199 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Predictive Control-Based AGC for Multi-Terminal HVDC-Connected AC grids
Abstract:
Multi-terminal high-voltage direct current (MTDC) grids are seen as the enabling technology in the development of massive scale international grids such as the European supergrid. It is expected that these grids can play a significant role in regulating ac system frequencies. To date, many proportional-integral (PI) controller-based techniques have been proposed for frequency regulation in ac MTDC-connected grids. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is proposed as a means of implementing automatic generation control, while minimizing dc grid power losses. The advantages of using MPC versus PI are highlighted with regard to improvements in both frequency and dc grid regulation, while explicitly considering both delays and dc voltage constraints.
Autors: Paul McNamara;Federico Milano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1036 - 1048
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Dynamic Control Allocation in a Hybrid Neuroprosthesis
Abstract:
A hybrid neuroprosthesis that combines human muscle power, elicited through functional electrical stimulation (FES), with a powered orthosis may be advantageous over a sole FES or a powered exoskeleton-based rehabilitation system. The hybrid system can conceivably overcome torque reduction due to FES-induced muscle fatigue by complementarily using torque from the powered exoskeleton. The second advantage of the hybrid system is that the use of human muscle power can supplement the powered exoskeleton’s power (motor torque) requirements; thus, potentially reducing the size and weight of a walking restoration system. To realize these advantages, however, it is unknown how to concurrently optimize desired control performance and allocation of control inputs between FES and electric motor. In this paper, a model predictive control-based dynamic control allocation (DCA) is used to allocate control between FES and the electric motor that simultaneously maintain a desired knee angle. The experimental results, depicting the performance of the DCA method while the muscle fatigues, are presented for an able-bodied participant and a participant with spinal cord injury. The experimental results showed that the motor torque recruited by the hybrid system was less than that recruited by the motor-only system, the algorithm can be easily used to allocate more control input to the electric motor as the muscle fatigues, and the muscle fatigue induced by the hybrid system was found to be less than the fatigue induced by sole FES. These results validate the aforementioned advantages of the hybrid system; thus implying the hybrid technology’s potential use in walking rehabilitation.
Autors: Nicholas A. Kirsch;Xuefeng Bao;Naji A. Alibeji;Brad E. Dicianno;Nitin Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 224 - 232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Testing of PLC Programs With Appropriate Conformance Relations
Abstract:
Numerous theoretical results have been obtained in the field of conformance testing, a very promising formal technique to improve dependability of critical systems. Nevertheless, developing on this basis programmable logic controller (PLC) test techniques that produce correct conformance verdicts requires to take into account the real technological features of PLC. This paper proposes conformance relations that meet this objective. Examples illustrate the benefits of the contribution.
Autors: Anais Guignard;Jean-Marc Faure;Gregory Faraut;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 350 - 359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Free Closed-Loop Stability Analysis: A Linear Functional Approach
Abstract:
Performing a stability analysis during the design of any electronic circuit is critical to guarantee its correct operation. A closed-loop stability analysis can be performed by analyzing the impedance presented by the circuit at a well-chosen node without internal access to the simulator. If any of the poles of this impedance lie in the complex right half-plane, the circuit is unstable. The classic way to detect unstable poles is to fit a rational model on the impedance. In this paper, a projection-based method is proposed which splits the impedance into a stable and an unstable part by projecting on an orthogonal basis of stable and unstable functions. When the unstable part lies significantly above the interpolation error of the method, the circuit is considered unstable. Working with a projection provides one, at small cost, with a first appraisal of the unstable part of the system. Both small-signal and large-signal stability analysis can be performed with this projection-based method. In the small-signal case, a low-order rational approximation can be fit on the unstable part to find the location of the unstable poles.
Autors: Adam Cooman;Fabien Seyfert;Martine Olivi;Sylvain Chevillard;Laurent Baratchart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 73 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Free Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources for Provisioning Transmission-Level Services
Abstract:
Collective control of distributed energy resources (DER)—such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters or battery storage—have the potential to provide regulation services to the bulk electric grid. While optimal power flow techniques may be used to coordinate DER for this purpose, these approaches typically rely on accurate network models and a large number of system measurements. In this paper, we consider an approach that alleviates these modeling and measurement requirements. Here, we consider a two-dimensional adaptive control scheme known as extremum seeking, or ES, to perform optimization without knowledge of a model of the distribution network. We apply this scheme to enable simultaneous feeder head active power and voltage magnitude reference tracking, as well as feeder voltage regulation. From the perspective of the transmission grid, this approach essentially transforms the distribution feeder into a controllable (P,V) bus. Simulation results confirm the ability of the approach to track substation real power and voltage reference signals while maintaining distribution system voltages within acceptable tolerances.
Autors: Daniel B. Arnold;Michael D. Sankur;Matias Negrete-Pincetic;Duncan S. Callaway;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 817 - 828
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Nano Composite BaTiO3 Lithium Polymer Battery
Abstract:
Batteries are power providers for all the portable electrical and electronic devices that can also be used as energy storage system for large scale applications. In order to design lithium polymer battery with good performance, the proper exploration of its composition materials is required. In this paper, Lithium polymer battery is modeled with the BaTiO3 nanocomposite polymer electrolyte. The simulation results show better performance of Lithium concentration on the electrode surfaces and cell voltage variation characteristic when compared with the liquid and pure polymer electrolyte. The maximum lithium salt concentration is observed to be near electrode surface of BaTiO3 nano composite mixed polymer electrolyte. An experiment is conducted to study the ion conductivity of the prepared polymer sample. The experimentation results show that the addition of BaTiO 3 nano filler to mixed polymer electrolyte gained better ionic conductivity.
Autors: T. Sathyanathan;C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 161 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Passive Switching Crossbar Arrays
Abstract:
Emerging technologies have enabled efficient, high-speed realizations of ultra-dense crossbar arrays, driving the need for better insight in the transient operation of such systems. Previous work focused mostly on the effect of line resistance and its impact on steady-state response. In this paper, we develop a compact framework that includes the effects of parasitics. We use memristors as an exemplar device where interconnect parasitics (resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance) are extracted using ANSYS Q3D extractor for 5- and 50- feature sizes. A model for the crossbar is presented, considering the stray and coupling capacitive parasitics of the crossbar. The derived model is based on state-space representation and provides more insight into the behavior of crossbar arrays containing either linear or nonlinear switching devices. The framework provides a closed-form solution to evaluate Elmore delay, as well as the steady-state response of the system. Signal delay is evaluated and compared for both grounded and floating interconnect inputs and verified against HSPICE, showing a perfect match.
Autors: Mohammed E. Fouda;Ahmed M. Eltawil;Fadi Kurdahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 270 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Damping Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Based DC Grid
Abstract:
A generic small-signal model of modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC grid is established and a DC virtual impedance damping control to suppress the resonance and instability is proposed. The averaged-value model (AVM) of MMC is employed to derive the Thévenin equivalent model of the converter from its DC side using the power-balancing principle considering the dynamics of phase-locked loop (PLL) of the interconnected ac system. The single section π-typed line model is selected to develop the nodal admittance equations of the DC network in s domain. The stability criterion of the DC grid is given after establishing the generic linearization model. The key factors affecting the DC grid's stability are identified using the root locus method and participation factors analysis. The parameters and the performances of the damping controller are designed and studied. Electromagnetic transient simulation model and RT-LAB real-time simulation are used to validate that the proposed damping control can suppress the instability of the DC grid and improve its operating performance.
Autors: Yunfeng Li;Guangfu Tang;Jun Ge;Zhiyuan He;Hui Pang;Jie Yang;Yanan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 723 - 735
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Identification of Ultra-Wideband Analog Multipliers
Abstract:
Analog multipliers are employed in many applications. In conventional RF front ends, for example, they are widely used for frequency conversion tasks. In noncoherent energy detectors or autocorrelation receivers, they multiply the (broadband) input signal by itself to achieve a down-conversion. Unfortunately, there exist no ideal hardware realizations of such devices, hence multipliers inevitably create undesired signal content at their output. To be able to deal with these effects or correct for them, we need to be able to model and identify realistic RF multipliers. This paper proposes and validates a multiple-input single-output Wiener–Hammerstein model for ultra-wideband (UWB) analog multipliers. The structure of the proposed model gives insight in the distortions created. It thus provides the possibility to study the realistic behavior of systems involving those multipliers, e.g., the influence of undesired nonlinear signal content onto noncoherent UWB receivers. A comparison of the model performance is shown with respect to measurements and circuit simulations.
Autors: Andreas Pedross-Engel;Hermann Schumacher;Klaus Witrisal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 283 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of Junctionless Double Gate Radiation Sensitive FET (RADFET) Dosimeter
Abstract:
A junctionless double gate radiation sensitive FET (RADFET) has been proposed to improve the radiation sensitivity and its application as CMOS-based dosimeter is discussed. Analytical model has been developed from 2D Poisson equation using variable separation technique and electrical performance of the proposed architecture has been compared with the conventional double gate (DG) RADFET. The comparison of device characteristics shows that the JL DG RADFET exhibits better electrical performance and sensitivity as compare to conventional DG RADFET. The model is verified using ATLAS 3D device simulation software.
Autors: Avashesh Dubey; Ajay;Rakhi Narang;Manoj Saxena;Mridula Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 49 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of Railgun System Driven by Multiple HTSPPT Modules
Abstract:
In the rail-type electromagnetic launching system, the equivalent load of pulsed-power supplies (PSs) varies with the launching process, while it has a certain influence on the discharge of pulsed PS. However, in the analysis and design of pulsed PS, researchers usually use the fixed resistance and inductance to simulate the load, which is impossible to accurately study the characteristics of the pulsed PS. The electromagnetic launching needs high-amplitude current pulse. Therefore, in this paper, a mathematical model of electromagnetic launching system driven by multiple superconducting inductive pulsed PS modules is established. In this model, the fixed resistance and inductance load are replaced by the dynamic load model of the railgun; the effects of dynamic load and fixed load on the discharge characteristics are analyzed; the parallel discharge characteristics of multiple high-temperature superconducting pulsed-power transformer (HTSPPT) modules are studied; and the characteristics of the simple rail-type electromagnetic launching driven by multiple HTSPPT modules are analyzed. The simulation results show that a high amplitude of current pulse can be produced using synchronous parallel discharge of multiple HTSPPT modules. The simulation results show that when the resistance and inductance of load are fixed at 2 and 0.5 , respectively, the current amplification factor is 15.666, and the maximum voltage of the auxiliary capacitor is 1079 V. In the dynamic load model, the current amplification factor is 17.174, and the error is 9.6%. The maximum voltage of the auxiliary capacitor is 983 V, and the error is 8.9%. Therefore, the discharge characteristics of pulsed PS can be more accurately studied using dynamic model- .
Autors: Zhenmei Li;Haitao Li;Xiaotong Zhang;Cunshan Zhang;Shucun Liu;Tong Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 167 - 174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design
Abstract:
Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.
Autors: Danielle Albers Szafir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 392 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Magnetized Graphene in the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method Using an Anisotropic Surface Boundary Condition
Abstract:
A cost-effective approach to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling of magnetized graphene sheets as a dispersive anisotropic conductive surface is proposed. We first introduce a novel method for implementation of anisotropic conductive surface boundary condition in the FDTD method. Then, by applying the surface conductivity matrix of magnetized graphene, we present modeling magnetized graphene as an infinitesimally thin conductive sheet in the FDTD method. The applicability, accuracy, and stability of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the results with existing analytic solution.
Autors: Mina Feizi;Vahid Nayyeri;Omar M. Ramahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 233 - 241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Distributed Queueing-Based Random Access for Machine Type Communications in Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Machine type communications (MTC) devices stay in idle mode to save energy and should perform random access (RA) procedure to obtain radio resources for data transmission. The RA procedure introduces access delay and extra power consumption for the MTC devices. Thus, RA needs to be optimized. In this letter, we develop low complexity analytical models to rapidly estimate maximum access delay and average number of preamble transmissions for distributed queueing-based random access (DQRA) protocol, which improves the performance of standard RA for MTC in LTE. The proposed model can be used to analyze the performance of group paging using DQRA. The performance analysis shows that the proposed analytical models accurately match the simulation results.
Autors: Ray-Guang Cheng;Zdenek Becvar;Ping-Hsun Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 129 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Energy Consumption of the HEVC Decoding Process
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a bit stream feature-based energy model that accurately estimates the energy required to decode a given High Efficiency Video Coding-coded bit stream. Therefore, we take a model from literature and extend it by explicitly modeling the in-loop filters, which was not done before. Furthermore, to prove its superior estimation performance, it is compared with seven different energy models from the literature. By using a unified evaluation framework, we show how accurately the required decoding energy for different decoding systems can be approximated. We give thorough explanations on the model parameters and explain how the model variables are derived. To show the modeling capabilities in general, we test the estimation performance for different decoding software and hardware solutions, where we find that the proposed model outperforms the models from the literature by reaching framewise mean estimation errors of less than 7% for software and less than 15% for hardware-based systems.
Autors: Christian Herglotz;Dominic Springer;Marc Reichenbach;Benno Stabernack;André Kaup;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 217 - 229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Nonlinear Cortical Response in EEG Evoked by Wrist Joint Manipulation
Abstract:
Joint manipulation elicits a response from the sensors in the periphery which, via the spinal cord, arrives in the cortex. The average evoked cortical response recorded using electroencephalography was shown to be highly nonlinear; a linear model can only explain 10% of the variance of the evoked response, and over 80% of the response is generated by nonlinear behavior. The goal of this paper is to obtain a nonparametric nonlinear dynamic model, which can consistently explain the recorded cortical response requiring little a priori assumptions about model structure. Wrist joint manipulation was applied in ten healthy participants during which their cortical activity was recorded and modeled using a truncated Volterra series. The obtained models could explain 46% of the variance of the evoked cortical response, thereby demonstrating the relevance of nonlinear modeling. The high similarity of the obtained models across participants indicates that the models reveal common characteristics of the underlying system. The models show predominantly high-pass behavior, which suggests that velocity-related information originating from the muscle spindles governs the cortical response. In conclusion, the nonlinear modeling approach using a truncated Volterra series with regularization, provides a quantitative way of investigating the sensorimotor system, offering insight into the underlying physiology.
Autors: Martijn P. Vlaar;Georgios Birpoutsoukis;John Lataire;Maarten Schoukens;Alfred C. Schouten;Johan Schoukens;Frans C. T. van der Helm;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 205 - 215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular Architectures Make You Agile in the Long Run
Abstract:
Researchers have developed ways to think about, visualize, and measure software modularity and its erosion objectively and quantifiably. Using these techniques, you’ll be able to determine whether your software is modular and identify complexity hotspots in your code that warrant further investigation.
Autors: Dan Sturtevant;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 104 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolithic Airflow Detection Chip With Automatic DC Offset Calibration
Abstract:
A monolithic airflow detection chip is proposed for respiration rate monitoring, and it integrates MEMS sensors with their CMOS signal processing circuits into a single chip. In fact, one major issue of integrating resistive MEMS sensors with CMOS circuits is how to deal with the dc offset caused by the inherent resistance mismatches in the sensors. In this paper, an airflow detection chip with automatic dc offset calibration is proposed. Moreover, there are two MEMS cantilever-based sensors, metal-covered and metal-free, in the proposed chip. The metal-covered sensor was designed for validating the MEMS simulation results of CoventorWare, while the metal-free sensor has a higher sensitivity and better performance. According to the measured results, the pressure sensitivity of the metal-covered sensor is /mN, which is in the same order with the CoventorWare simulation result, and the sensitivity of the metal-free sensor is /mN. As to the fully built-in CMOS signal processing circuits, the system bandwidth is 0.5–4 Hz, and the input dc offset can be attenuated by a factor of 10 dB. The proposed chip was designed using a 0.35- CMOS/MEMS 2P4M mixed-signal polycide process, and the chip area is mm2.
Autors: Ming-Ke Tsai;Tse-An Chen;Heng-Yu Chiu;Tse-Wei Wu;Chia-Ling Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 107 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MOSS-5: A Fast Method of Approximating Counts of 5-Node Graphlets in Large Graphs
Abstract:
Counting 3-, 4-, and 5-node graphlets in graphs is important for graph mining applications such as discovering abnormal/evolution patterns in social and biology networks. In addition, it is recently widely used for computing similarities between graphs and graph classification applications such as protein function prediction and malware detection. However, it is challenging to compute these graphlet counts for a large graph or a large set of graphs due to the combinatorial nature of the problem. Despite recent efforts in counting 3-node and 4-node graphlets, little attention has been paid to characterizing 5-node graphlets. In this paper, we develop a computationally efficient sampling method to estimate 5-node graphlet counts. We not only provide a fast sampling method and unbiased estimators of graphlet counts, but also derive simple yet exact formulas for the variances of the estimators which are of great value in practice—the variances can be used to bound the estimates’ errors and determine the smallest necessary sampling budget for a desired accuracy. We conduct experiments on a variety of real-world datasets, and the results show that our method is several orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art methods with the same accuracy.
Autors: Pinghui Wang;Junzhou Zhao;Xiangliang Zhang;Zhenguo Li;Jiefeng Cheng;John C.S. Lui;Don Towsley;Jing Tao;Xiaohong Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 73 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion Tracking of the Carotid Artery Wall From Ultrasound Image Sequences: a Nonlinear State-Space Approach
Abstract:
The motion of the common carotid artery (CCA) wall has been established to be useful in early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease. However, tracking the CCA wall motion from ultrasound images remains a challenging task. In this paper, a nonlinear state-space approach has been developed to track CCA wall motion from ultrasound sequences. In this approach, a nonlinear state-space equation with a time-variant control signal was constructed from a mathematical model of the dynamics of the CCA wall. Then, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) was adopted to solve the nonlinear state transfer function in order to evolve the state of the target tissue, which involves estimation of the motion trajectory of the CCA wall from noisy ultrasound images. The performance of this approach has been validated on 30 simulated ultrasound sequences and a real ultrasound dataset of 103 subjects by comparing the motion tracking results obtained in this study to those of three state-of-the-art methods and of the manual tracing method performed by two experienced ultrasound physicians. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach is highly correlated with (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.9948 for the longitudinal motion and ≥ 0.9966 for the radial motion) and well agrees (the 95% confidence interval width is 0.8871 mm for the longitudinal motion and 0.4159 mm for the radial motion) with the manual tracing method on real data and also exhibits high accuracy on simulated data (0.1161 ~ 0.1260 mm). These results appear to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for motion tracking of the CCA wall.
Autors: Zhifan Gao;Yanjie Li;Yuanyuan Sun;Jiayuan Yang;Huahua Xiong;Heye Zhang;Xin Liu;Wanqing Wu;Dong Liang;Shuo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 273 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motor Task Detection From Human STN Using Interhemispheric Connectivity
Abstract:
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides significant therapeutic benefit for movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Current DBS devices lack real-time feedback (thus are open loop) and stimulation parameters are adjusted during scheduled visits with a clinician. A closed-loop DBS system may reduce power consumption and side effects by adjusting stimulation parameters based on patient’s behavior. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potential (LFP) is a great candidate signal for the neural feedback, because it can be recorded from the stimulation lead and does not require additional sensors. In this paper, we introduce a behavior detection method capable of asynchronously detecting the finger movements of PD patients. Our study indicates that there is a motor-modulated inter-hemispheric connectivity between LFP signals recorded bilaterally from the STN. We utilize a non-linear regression method to measure this inter-hemispheric connectivity for detecting finger movement. Our experimental results, using the recordings from 11 patients with PD, demonstrate that this approach is applicable for behavior detection in the majority of subjects (average area under curve of 70±12%).
Autors: Soroush Niketeghad;Adam O. Hebb;Joshua Nedrud;Sara J. Hanrahan;Mohammad H. Mahoor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 216 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving Target Refocusing Algorithm in 2-D Wavenumber Domain After BP Integral
Abstract:
Focusing moving targets with frequency-domain algorithms may suffer from azimuth spectrum not entirely contained within a pulse-repetition frequency band, which may lead to degraded detection performance due to distributing the energy to the artifacts. In order to avoid this problem, a refocusing algorithm after back-projection integral is proposed. The main idea is first to uniformly and coarsely focus moving targets for detection, and then extract the detected targets for refocusing. By deriving the exact analytic expression of the wavenumber spectrum, motion parameter estimation and motion compensation are directly carried out on the 2-D wavenumber domain of the small-sized extracted data, which involves fast Fourier transform and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform operations only with no interpolation, thus reduces the computational complexity. Then, the final refocused image of the moving target is achieved. Refocusing results of both airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Qi Dong;Meng-Dao Xing;Xiang-Gen Xia;Sheng Zhang;Guang-Cai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 127 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving Target Tracking in SAR Data Using Combined Exo- and Endo-Clutter Processing
Abstract:
Detecting and tracking moving targets in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a challenging task, demanding state-of-the-art processing methods and advanced SAR systems. Current approaches concentrate on the problem of either endo-clutter moving target tracking or exo-clutter moving target tracking, neglecting the advantages of a joint tracking framework. We present an approach relying on a combined exo- and endo-clutter processing scheme using SAR data with a high pulse repetition frequency. The main processing chain is subdivided into four major steps: 1) focusing of temporal and spatial overlapping SAR images; 2) extracting image statistics for each of these subaperture images in the endo- and exo-clutter domains; 3) subsequent tracking of both endo- and exo-clutter observations using multitarget unscented Kalman filtering; and 4) calculating real-world speeds and positions from the SAR image space coordinates using a road network. The results of this approach are validated and compared with ground-based measurements, and it is found that 100% of the vehicles were detected correctly with an accuracy in speed of 0.02 ± 0.31 m/s and an average tracking time of ~28 s.
Autors: Daniel Henke;Elias Mendez Dominguez;David Small;Michael E. Schaepman;Erich Meier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 251 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MPiLoc: Self-Calibrating Multi-Floor Indoor Localization Exploiting Participatory Sensing
Abstract:
While location is one of the most important context information in mobile and pervasive computing, large-scale deployment of indoor localization system remains elusive. In this work, we propose MPiLoc, a multi-floor indoor localization system that utilizes data contributed by smartphone users through participatory sensing for automatic floor plan and radio map construction. Our system does not require manual calibration, prior knowledge, or infrastructure support. The key novelty of MPiLoc is that it clusters and merges walking trajectories annotated with sensor and signal strengths to derive a map of walking paths annotated with radio signal strengths in multi-floor indoor environments. We evaluate MPiLoc over five different indoor areas. Evaluation shows that our system can derive indoor maps for various indoor environments in multi-floor settings and achieve an average localization error of 1.82 m.
Autors: Chengwen Luo;Hande Hong;Mun Choon Chan;Jianqiang Li;Xinglin Zhang;Zhong Ming;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 141 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference 2017 [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2017 MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference.
Autors: Heng-Ming Hsu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 127 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Cell Cooperative Scheduling for Network Utility Maximization With User Equipment Side Interference Cancellation
Abstract:
Downlink inter-cell interference is a major limiting factor in current cellular systems. Several trends exacerbate the interference problem: cells become denser, more heterogeneous, and are more randomly deployed. To tackle this problem, there are many pure network-side solutions proposed, e.g., eICIC and feICIC in 3GPP LTE. However, these solutions are less spectrally efficient because the interferer usually needs to mute or reduce power to keep its interference power to victims below a tolerable level. In this paper, we consider an alternative solution in which the user equipment may perform interference cancellation (IC). In theory, this is a more spectrally efficient scheme as compared with the pure network-side solutions. In practice, however, to fully exploit the benefit of IC, the network should adopt some IC-aware scheduling rules. We propose a multi-cell joint scheduling, joint rate selection and power allocation problem in an IC-enabled network, trying to maximize the network utility. To make our solutions practical and readily deployable, we consider different settings. We explore both theoretically optimal IC scheme and the more practical symbol-level IC. On the other hand, we propose both dynamic and semi-static solutions, and compare them. Our simulation results show that while the average throughput increases by only around 10%, cell edge users can gain more than 50%.
Autors: Chen-Yu Wei;Wanjiun Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 619 - 635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Dimensional Sparse Models
Abstract:
Traditional synthesis/analysis sparse representation models signals in a one dimensional (1D) way, in which a multidimensional (MD) signal is converted into a 1D vector. 1D modeling cannot sufficiently handle MD signals of high dimensionality in limited computational resources and memory usage, as breaking the data structure and inherently ignores the diversity of MD signals (tensors). We utilize the multilinearity of tensors to establish the redundant basis of the space of multi linear maps with the sparsity constraint, and further propose MD synthesis/analysis sparse models to effectively and efficiently represent MD signals in their original form. The dimensional features of MD signals are captured by a series of dictionaries simultaneously and collaboratively. The corresponding dictionary learning algorithms and unified MD signal restoration formulations are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed models and dictionary learning algorithms is demonstrated through experiments on MD signals denoising, image super-resolution and texture classification. Experiments show that the proposed MD models outperform state-of-the-art 1D models in terms of signal representation quality, computational overhead, and memory storage. Moreover, our proposed MD sparse models generalize the 1D sparse models and are flexible and adaptive to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous properties of MD signals.
Autors: Na Qi;Yunhui Shi;Xiaoyan Sun;Jingdong Wang;Baocai Yin;Junbin Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 163 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Element VLC Networks: LED Assignment, Power Control, and Optimum Combining
Abstract:
Visible light communications (VLCs) are a promising technology to address the spectrum crunch problem in radio frequency networks. A major advantage of VLC networks is that they can use the existing lighting infrastructure in indoor environments, which may have large number of LEDs for illumination. While LEDs used for lighting typically have limited bandwidth, presence of many LEDs can be exploited for indoor VLC networks, to serve each user by multiple LEDs for improving link quality and throughput. In this paper, LEDs are grouped and assigned to the users based on received signal strength from each LED, for which different solutions are proposed to achieve maximum throughput, proportional fairness, and quality of service. Additionally, power optimization of LEDs for a given assignment is investigated, and the Jacobian and Hessian matrices of the corresponding optimization problem are derived. Moreover, for multi-element receivers with LED grouping at the transmitter, an improved optimal combining method is proposed. This method suppresses interference caused by simultaneous data transfer of LEDs and improves the overall signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio by 2–5 dB. Lastly, an efficient calculation of channel response is presented to simulate multipath VLC channel with low computational complexity.
Autors: Yusuf Said Eroğlu;İsmail Güvenç;Alphan Şahin;Yavuz Yapıcı;Nezih Pala;Murat Yüksel;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 121 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Imager Compatible, MR Safe, Remote Center of Motion Needle-Guide Robot
Abstract:
We report the development of a new robotic system for direct image-guided interventions (DIGI; images acquired at the time of the intervention). The manipulator uses our previously reported pneumatic step motors and is entirely made of electrically nonconductive, nonmetallic, and nonmagnetic materials. It orients a needle-guide with two degrees of freedom (DoF) about a fulcrum point located below the guide using an innovative remote center of motion parallelogram type mechanism. The depth of manual needle insertion is preset with a third DoF, located remotely of the manipulator. Special consideration was given to the kinematic accuracy and the structural stiffness. The manipulator includes registration markers for image-to-robot registration. Based on the images, it may guide needles, drills, or other slender instruments to a target (OD < 10 mm). Comprehensive preclinical tests were performed. The manipulator is MR safe (ASTM F2503-13). Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing (IEC 60601-1-2) of the system shows that it does not conduct or radiate EM emissions. The change in the signal to noise ratio of the MRI due to the presence and motion of the robot in the scanner is below 1%. The structural stiffness at the needle-guide is 33 N/mm. The angular accuracy and precision of the manipulator itself are 0.177° and 0.077°. MRI-guided targeting accuracy and precision in vitro were 1.71 mm and 0.51 mm, at an average target depth of ∼38 mm, with no adjustments. The system may be suitable for DIGI where [mm] accuracy lateral to the needle (2D) or [mm] in 3D is acceptable. The system is also multi-imager compatible and co- ld be used with other imaging modalities.
Autors: Dan Stoianovici;Changhan Jun;Sunghwan Lim;Pan Li;Doru Petrisor;Stanley Fricke;Karun Sharma;Kevin Cleary;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 165 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning for Multi-Class Classification of Whole Slide Breast Histopathology Images
Abstract:
Digital pathology has entered a new era with the availability of whole slide scanners that create the high-resolution images of full biopsy slides. Consequently, the uncertainty regarding the correspondence between the image areas and the diagnostic labels assigned by pathologists at the slide level, and the need for identifying regions that belong to multiple classes with different clinical significances have emerged as two new challenges. However, generalizability of the state-of-the-art algorithms, whose accuracies were reported on carefully selected regions of interest (ROIs) for the binary benign versus cancer classification, to these multi-class learning and localization problems is currently unknown. This paper presents our potential solutions to these challenges by exploiting the viewing records of pathologists and their slide-level annotations in weakly supervised learning scenarios. First, we extract candidate ROIs from the logs of pathologists’ image screenings based on different behaviors, such as zooming, panning, and fixation. Then, we model each slide with a bag of instances represented by the candidate ROIs and a set of class labels extracted from the pathology forms. Finally, we use four different multi-instance multi-label learning algorithms for both slide-level and ROI-level predictions of diagnostic categories in whole slide breast histopathology images. Slide-level evaluation using 5-class and 14-class settings showed average precision values up to 81% and 69%, respectively, under different weakly labeled learning scenarios. ROI-level predictions showed that the classifier could successfully perform multi-class localization and classification within whole slide images that were selected to include the full range of challenging diagnostic categories.
Autors: Caner Mercan;Selim Aksoy;Ezgi Mercan;Linda G. Shapiro;Donald L. Weaver;Joann G. Elmore;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 316 - 325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Node Transfer Alignment Based on Mechanics Modeling for Airborne DPOS
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of multi-node transfer alignment estimation of airborne distributed position and orientation system (DPOS), and its aim is to achieve the motion parameters for all sub-nodes as high precision as possible by using the main system. The complicated aircraft deformation, especially the wing’s flexure, will seriously decrease the accuracy of transfer alignment. Usually, the deformation between the main node and each sub-node is idealized as an independent Markov process. In fact, these deformations are interrelated at a certain moment. To solve the mentioned problem, a multi-node transfer alignment method based on mechanics modeling is proposed in this paper. In this method, the elastic mechanics theory is used to build a unified kinematic equation of the wing to describe the flexible deformations of all sub-nodes, and then the transfer alignment is performed to obtain the motion parameters of each sub-node with inertial measurement units (IMU). Finally, the motion parameters of other sub-nodes without IMUs are obtained by the least squares fitting. The mathematical simulation and semi-physical simulation based on flight experiment show that the proposed method is not only effective but also provides us some new insights into the multi-node measurement of DPOS.
Autors: Xiaolin Gong;Haojie Liu;Jiancheng Fang;Gang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 669 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Multi-Objective Genetic Particle Swarm Optimizer
Abstract:
In recent decades, bearingless switched reluctance motors (BSRMs) have been proposed. However, few researchers focused on the optimal design of the BSRMs. In this paper, the multi-objective optimal design of BSRMs is investigated. At first, an analytical design model is derived from the mathematical model of the BSRMs. An initial design is calculated by the analytical design model. The electromagnetic performance is compared with calculation results from the finite-element method (FEM). Then, the objective functions, constraints, and decision variables are also determined. Corresponding sensitivity analysis of the decision variables is implemented. Besides, aiming at solving the optimization problem with disconnected, non-uniformly distributed Pareto front and multiple local optimums, a novel multi-objective genetic particle swarm optimizer (MOGPSO) is presented. The algorithm performance of the proposed MOGPSO is validated by solving the standard test functions. Then the proposed MOGPSO is applied for the optimal design of BSRMs. Optimization results solved by MOGPSO, conventional multi-objective particle swarm optimizer, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II are compared and analyzed. Comparison results reveal that the proposed MOGPSO can achieve more non-dominated solutions in Pareto front and is particularly suitable for optimization of BSRMs. The final optimal design is selected from the obtained Pareto front. The electromagnetic performance is compared with the initial design and verified by the FEM. Verification results show that the optimal design of BSRMs based on the analytical design model and the proposed MOGPSO is feasible and effective.
Autors: Jingwei Zhang;Honghua Wang;Ling Chen;Chao Tan;Yi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Stage Holomorphic Embedding Method for Calculating the Power-Voltage Curve
Abstract:
The recently proposed non-iterative load flow method, called the holomorphic embedding method, may encounter the precision issue, i.e., the nontrivial round-off errors caused by the limited digits used in computing the power-voltage (P-V) curve for a heavily loaded power system. This letter proposes a multi-stage scheme to solve such a precision issue and calculate an accurate P-V curve. The scheme is verified on the New England 39-bus power system and benchmarked with the result from the traditional continuation power flow method.
Autors: Bin Wang;Chengxi Liu;Kai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1127 - 1129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming With Nonanticipativity Constraints for Expansion of Combined Power and Natural Gas Systems
Abstract:
A novel multi-stage stochastic programming model is proposed for the expansion coplanning of gas and power networks considering the uncertainties in net load demand. Meanwhile, the nonanticipativity constraints are taken into account to guarantee the decisions should only depend on the information of realized uncertainties up to the present stage. Compared with the traditional two-stage stochastic programming model, the proposed multi-stage stochastic programming model yields sequential investment decisions with the uncertainties revealed gradually over time, such that the investment decisions are capable of keeping future options open and can shift from “never be changed” decisions to a flexible “wait and see” decisions. The test on three systems shows the effectiveness of the proposed multi-stage stochastic programming model.
Autors: Tao Ding;Yuan Hu;Zhaohong Bie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 317 - 328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiaccess In Vivo Biotelemetry Using Sonomicrometry and M-Scan Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
 Objective: In this paper, we investigate the use of commercial off-the-shelf diagnostic ultrasound readers to achieve multiaccess wireless in vivo telemetry with millimeter-sized sonomicrometry crystal transducers. Methods: The sonomicrometry crystals generate ultrasonic pulses that supersede the echoes generated at the tissue interfaces in response to M-scan interrogation pulses. The traces of these synthetic pulses are captured on an M-scan image and the transmitted data are decoded using image deconvolution and deblurring algorithms. Results: Using a chicken phantom and 1.3 MHz sonomicrometry crystals of diameter 1 mm, we first demonstrate that a standard ultrasound reader can achieve biotelemetry data rates up to 1 Mb/s for implantation depths greater than 10 cm. For this experiment the maximum power dissipation at the crystals was measured to be 20 and bit-error-rate of the telemetry link was shown to be . We also demonstrate the use of this method for multiaccess biotelemetry where several sonomicrometry crystals simultaneously transmit the data using different modulation and coding techniques. Using a live ovine model, we demonstrate a sonomicrometry crystal implanted in the sheep 's tricuspid valve can maintain a continuous, reliable telemetry link at data rates up tob 800 Kb/s in the presence of respiratory and cardiac motion artifacts. Conclusion: Compared to existing radio-frequency and ultrasound based biotelemetry devices, the reported data-rates are significantly higher considering the transducer's form-factor and its implantation depth. Significance: The proposed technique thus validates the feasibility of establishing r- liable communication link with multiple in vivo implants using M-scan-based ultrasound imaging.
Autors: Sri Harsha Kondapalli;Yarub Alazzawi;Marcin Malinowski;Tomasz Timek;Shantanu Chakrabartty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 149 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicore Mixed-Criticality Systems: Partitioned Scheduling and Utilization Bound
Abstract:
In mixed-criticality (MC) systems, multiple activities with various certification requirements (thus with different criticality levels) can co-exist on shared hardware platforms, where multicore processors have emerged as the de facto computing engines. In this paper, by using the partitioned earliest-deadline-first with virtual deadlines (EDF-VDs) scheduler for a set of periodic MC tasks running on multicore systems, we derive a criticality-aware utilization bound for efficient feasibility tests and then identify its characteristics. Our analysis shows that the bound increases with increasing number of cores and decreasing system criticality level. We show that, since the utilizations of MC tasks at different criticality levels can vary considerably, the utilization contribution of a task on different cores may have large variations and thus can significantly affect the system schedulability under the EDF-VD scheduler. Based on these observations, we propose a novel and efficient criticality-aware task partitioning algorithm (CA-TPA) to compensate for the inherent pessimism of the utilization bound. In order to improve the system schedulability, the task priorities are determined according to their utilization contributions to the system in CA-TPA. Moreover, by analyzing the utilization variations of tasks at different levels, we develop several heuristics to minimize the utilization increment and balance the workload on cores. The simulation results show that the CA-TPA scheme is very effective in achieving higher schedulability ratio and yielding balanced workloads. The actual implementation in Linux operating system further demonstrates the applicability of CA-TPA with lower run-time overhead, compared to the existing partitioning schemes.
Autors: Jian-Jun Han;Xin Tao;Dakai Zhu;Hakan Aydin;Zili Shao;Laurence T. Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 21 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidomain Phase-Field Modeling of Negative Capacitance Switching Transients
Abstract:
Continuum phase-field simulations show how a multidomain ferroelectric capacitor in series with a resistor can exhibit a transient response in which the ferroelectric behaves as a negative capacitor. We show that accelerating domain growth leads to negative capacitance (NC), and this happens even when there is no initial switching of the domains. The observed behavior is in close agreement with experimental results of NC transients seen recently in a number of ferroelectric material systems.
Autors: Samuel Smith;Korok Chatterjee;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 295 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifeature, Sparse-Based Approach for Defects Detection and Classification in Semiconductor Units
Abstract:
Automated inspection systems play an important role in manufacturing to guarantee higher quality and reduce production costs. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, assembly and testing processes are getting more complex, resulting in a greater tendency of defects to impact the production process. These defects can cause field failures and can result in customer dissatisfactions and returns. Currently available defect detection and classification systems are customized and hard-wired to the detection of particular classes of defects and cannot deal with new unknown classes of defects. This issue is aggravated by the very small sample size of available anomalies for learning, by the data imbalance problem, since the number of defective samples is significantly much smaller than the number of normal samples, and by the presence of noise. This paper presents a novel multifeature, sparse-based defect detection and classification approach that uses the stacking concept to enhance the classification accuracy. The stacking-based classifier is augmented with a novel adaptive over/downsampling technique to deal with the data imbalance problem. A new pruning technique is proposed to eliminate bad base learners. Shortage of defective units, similarities within different classes of defects, wide variation within the same defect class, and data imbalance are the basic challenges to deal with. Experimental results on real-world data from Intel show that the proposed approach results in a high classification accuracy as compared with the existing methods.

Note to Practitioners—The basic motivation of this paper is to design an automated cost-effective, adaptive, and intelligent defect detection and classification system that is easy to train using a small-size sample set of defects and that is robust to noise. The system is scalable in terms of the numbers and types of defects and features, which leads to a shorter development cycle- The presented system is immediately applicable to different types of defects. Inputs of the system are grayscale images. These images are processed to perform defects detection, features extraction, and classification.

Autors: Bashar M. Haddad;Sen Yang;Lina J. Karam;Jieping Ye;Nital S. Patel;Martin W. Braun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 145 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer Millimeter-Wave MCMs [From the Guest Editors' Desk]
Abstract:
After a brief review of the state of the art, this focus issue on multilayer millimeter-wave (mmW) multichip modules (MCMs) presents four cover features that showcase the evolution in some key areas of multilayer mmW MCM integration and packaging technologies: advanced interconnects, integration techniques, components, and systems that use additive as well as substructure manufacturing technologies aimed toward making next-generation mmW applications feasible. The first two features provide an overview of state-of-the-art multilayer ceramic-based multichip module and packaging techniques, while the third and fourth features are more specific: one describing SiP eWLB packaging techniques and the other covering recent developments in inkjet and 3-D printed components and subsystems using additive manufacturing technologies.
Autors: Kamal K. Samanta;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 20 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Deep Embedding via Hierarchical Grounded Compositional Semantics
Abstract:
For a number of important problems, isolated semantic representations of individual syntactic words or visual objects do not suffice, but instead a compositional semantic representation is required; for example, a literal phrase or a set of spatially concurrent objects. In this paper, we aim to harness the existing image–sentence databases to exploit the compositional nature of image–sentence data for multimodal deep embedding. In particular, we propose an approach called hierarchical-alike (bottom–up two layers) multimodal grounded compositional semantics (hiMoCS) learning. The proposed hiMoCS systemically captures the compositional semantic connotation of multimodal data in the setting of hierarchical-alike deep learning by modeling the inherent correlations between two modalities of collaboratively grounded semantics, such as the textual entity (with its describing attribute) and visual object, the phrase (e.g., subject-verb–object triplet), and spatially concurrent objects. We argue that hiMoCS is more appropriate to reflect the multimodal compositional semantics of the image and its narrative textual sentence, which are strongly coupled. We evaluate hiMoCS on the several benchmark data sets and show that the utilization of the hiMoCS (textual entities and visual objects, textual phrase, and spatially concurrent objects) achieves a much better performance than only using the flat grounded compositional semantics.
Autors: Yueting Zhuang;Jun Song;Fei Wu;Xi Li;Zhongfei Zhang;Yong Rui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 76 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Fusion With Reference: Searching for Joint Neuromarkers of Working Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia
Abstract:
By exploiting cross-information among multiple imaging data, multimodal fusion has often been used to better understand brain diseases. However, most current fusion approaches are blind, without adopting any prior information. There is increasing interest to uncover the neurocognitive mapping of specific clinical measurements on enriched brain imaging data; hence, a supervised, goal-directed model that employs prior information as a reference to guide multimodal data fusion is much needed and becomes a natural option. Here, we proposed a fusion with reference model called “multi-site canonical correlation analysis with reference + joint-independent component analysis” (MCCAR+jICA), which can precisely identify co-varying multimodal imaging patterns closely related to the reference, such as cognitive scores. In a three-way fusion simulation, the proposed method was compared with its alternatives on multiple facets; MCCAR+jICA outperforms others with higher estimation precision and high accuracy on identifying a target component with the right correspondence. In human imaging data, working memory performance was utilized as a reference to investigate the co-varying working memory-associated brain patterns among three modalities and how they are impaired in schizophrenia. Two independent cohorts (294 and 83 subjects respectively) were used. Similar brain maps were identified between the two cohorts along with substantial overlaps in the central executive network in fMRI, salience network in sMRI, and major white matter tracts in dMRI. These regions have been linked with working memory deficits in schizophrenia in multiple reports and MCCAR+jICA further verified them in a repeatable, joint manner, demonstrating the ability of the proposed method to identify potential neuromarkers for mental disorders.
Autors: Shile Qi;Vince D. Calhoun;Theo G. M. van Erp;Juan Bustillo;Eswar Damaraju;Jessica A. Turner;Yuhui Du;Jian Yang;Jiayu Chen;Qingbao Yu;Daniel H. Mathalon;Judith M. Ford;James Voyvodic;Bryon A. Mueller;Aysenil Belger;Sarah McEwen;Steven G. Potkin;Adrian
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 93 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Scheduling of Microgrids to Harvest Higher Photovoltaic Energy
Abstract:
Photovoltaics (PVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could instigate voltage violation issues, if not controlled properly. Besides, these components highly contribute to economic efficiency of microgrids (MGs). Being motivated to enhance technical and economic issues, this study develops an energy management system that is able to coordinate voltage control devices, say under-load tap changers (ULTC), PVs, PEV aggregators, and dispatchable distributed generations (DDGs). Active and reactive power provisions of PEVs and DDGs along with voltage control of ULTC lessen the plausible violations. So, higher renewable energy is contributed by PVs and extra monetary saving is reflected. In this manner, augmented Epsilon-constraint method followed with fuzzy decision making is applied to operation cost and voltage deviation minimizations. The proposed approach is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear multiobjective problem and tested on a modified IEEE 33-bus medium-voltage MG. Results are discussed in depth.
Autors: Amir Hamidi;Daryoush Nazarpour;Sajjad Golshannavaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 47 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Subpixel Land-Cover Mapping
Abstract:
The hyperspectral subpixel mapping (SPM) technique can generate a land-cover map at the subpixel scale by modeling the relationship between the abundance map and the spatial distribution image of the subpixels. However, this is an inverse ill-posed problem. The most widely used way to resolve the problem is to introduce additional information as a regularization term and acquire the unique optimal solution. However, the regularization parameter either needs to be determined manually or it cannot be determined in a fully adaptive manner. Thus, in this paper, the multiobjective subpixel land-cover mapping (MOSM) framework for hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is proposed, in which the two function terms [the fidelity term and the prior term (i.e., the regularization term)] can be optimized simultaneously, and there is no need to determine the regularization parameter explicitly. In order to achieve this goal, two strategies are designed in MOSM: 1) a high-resolution distribution image-based individual encoding strategy is designed in order to calculate the prior term accurately and 2) a subfitness-based individual comparison strategy is designed in order to generate subpixel land-cover mapping solutions with a high quality to update the population. Four data sets (one simulated, two synthetic, and one real hyperspectral image) were used to test the proposed method. The experimental results show that MOSM can perform better than the other subpixel land-cover mapping methods, demonstrating the effectiveness of MOSM in balancing the fidelity term and prior term in the SPM model.
Autors: Ailong Ma;Yanfei Zhong;Da He;Liangpei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 422 - 435
Publisher: IEEE
 

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