Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 3

» Analog-to-Digital Cognitive Radio: Sampling, Detection, and Hardware
Abstract:
The radio spectrum is the radio-frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These spectral resources are traditionally allocated to licensed or primary users (PUs) by governmental organizations. As discussed in "Radio-Frequency Spectral Resources," most of the frequency bands are already allocated to one or more PUs. Consequently, new users cannot easily find free frequency bands. Spurred by the everincreasing demand from new wireless communication applications, this issue has become critical over the past few years.
Autors: Deborah Cohen;Shahar Tsiper;Yonina C. Eldar;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 137 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Control of RRAM Overshoot Current
Abstract:
To combat the large variability problem in resistive random access memory, current compliance elements are commonly used to limit the in-rush current during the forming operation. Regardless of the compliance element (1R-1R or 1T-1R), some degree of current overshoot is unavoidable. The peak value of the overshoot current is often used as a predictive metric of the filament characteristics and is linked to the parasitic capacitance of the test structure. The reported detrimental effects of higher parasitic capacitance seem to support this concept. However, this understanding is inconsistent with the recent successes of compliance-free ultrashort pulse forming which guarantees a maximum peak overshoot current. We use detailed circuit analysis and experimental measurements of 1R-1R and 1T-1R structures to show that the peak overshoot is independent of the parasitic capacitance while the overshoot duration is strongly dependent on the parasitic capacitance. Forming control can be achieved, in ultrashort pulse forming, since the overshoot duration is always less than the applied pulse duration. The demonstrated success of ultrashort pulse forming becomes easier to reconcile after identifying the importance of overshoot duration.
Autors: Pragya R. Shrestha;David M. Nminibapiel;Jason P. Campbell;Jason T. Ryan;Dmitry Veksler;Helmut Baumgart;Kin P. Cheung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 108 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Modeling of Electroforming in Transition Metal Oxide-Based Memristors and Its Impact on Crossbar Array Density
Abstract:
This letter proposes a compact physical model for electroforming in transition metal oxide memristors. The proposed model is based on oxide breakdown statistics and validated against experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. The model is applied to the problem of area optimization of memristive crossbar array. It is shown that a tradeoff exists between the area of the cross-point and the area of the forming circuit. Reduction of the switching layer thickness and/or varying the local field enhancement may result in an appreciable reduction of the forming voltage which, in turn, alleviates the need for forming transistors and yields significant area reduction. On the other hand, these gains might be subdued by scaling the crossbar array itself. The proposed compact model is useful for designers wishing to explore circuit level impacts of forming.
Autors: Sherif Amer;Md Sakib Hasan;Garrett S. Rose;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Observations From the First Amazon Picking Challenge
Abstract:
This paper presents an overview of the inaugural Amazon Picking Challenge along with a summary of a survey conducted among the 26 participating teams. The challenge goal was to design an autonomous robot to pick items from a warehouse shelf. This task is currently performed by human workers, and there is hope that robots can someday help increase efficiency and throughput while lowering cost. We report on a 28-question survey posed to the teams to learn about each team’s background, mechanism design, perception apparatus, planning, and control approach. We identify trends in this data, correlate it with each team’s success in the competition, and discuss observations and lessons learned based on survey results and the authors’ personal experiences during the challenge.

Note to Practitioners—Perception, motion planning, grasping, and robotic system engineering have reached a level of maturity that makes it possible to explore automating simple warehouse tasks in semistructured environments that involve high-mix, low-volume picking applications. This survey summarizes lessons learned from the first Amazon Picking Challenge, highlighting mechanism design, perception, and motion planning algorithms, as well as software engineering practices that were most successful in solving a simplified order fulfillment task. While the choice of mechanism mostly affects execution speed, the competition demonstrated the systems challenges of robotics and illustrated the importance of combining reactive control with deliberative planning.

Autors: Nikolaus Correll;Kostas E. Bekris;Dmitry Berenson;Oliver Brock;Albert Causo;Kris Hauser;Kei Okada;Alberto Rodriguez;Joseph M. Romano;Peter R. Wurman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 172 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Average Packet Loss Rate in Multi-Hop Broadcast for VANETs
Abstract:
Multi-hop relay can effectively improve the average packet loss rate (PLR) of vehicular ad hoc networks within a particular zone of interest. Challenges arise from analyzing the average PLR affected by distributed relay selections, which depend on the mobility of vehicles, the wireless channel conditions, and media access control (MAC). In this letter, we propose an average PLR analysis model taking into account the above three factors. However, the closed-form expression for the average PLR is intractable mainly due to the multiple integral of the joint distance distribution integrating with the channel conditions and vehicle mobility. An explicit expression for the upper bound of the average PLR is obtained by using Taylor series expansion, Holder’s inequality, and the relay probability relaxation, which can facilitate the selection of the parameters at the physical and MAC layers for a better PLR. Simulation results validate our analyses.
Autors: Wuwen Lai;Wei Ni;Hua Wang;Ren Ping Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 157 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Electromagnetic Induction for Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostics in Open and Cased Boreholes
Abstract:
In this paper, the sensitivity and detectability of an electromagnetic induction tool for hydraulic fracture detection are analyzed by calculating the electromagnetic response from an orthogonal transverse fracture (OTF) in an open or cased borehole using the improved numerical mode matching method. The OTF is modeled as a slim circular disk, which is axially symmetric with respect to the borehole axis and filled with a conductive or magnetic proppant. The feasibility of the induction tool for fracture diagnostics was validated via scaled-down experimental measurements. We then quantitatively analyze the induction response sensitivity to different proppant parameters, such as conductivity and permeability, to evaluate the effectiveness of the induction logging tool for fracture detection. The analysis reveals that the short-spaced receiver can accurately locate the fracture position and distinguish small-sized fractures, while the long-spaced receiver can differentiate fractures with large dimension. Casings with different thicknesses, conductivities, and permeabilities are modeled together with the fracture to investigate their effects in fracture detection. Finally, the application of the induction tool to a fracture network is evaluated.
Autors: Junwen Dai;Yuan Fang;Jianyang Zhou;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 264 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Indium–Zinc–Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Under Electrostatic Discharge Stress
Abstract:
The electrostatic discharge robustness of indium–zinc–oxide thin-film transistor (IZO TFT) was investigated in this brief by employing a transmission line pulsed (TLP) test with different durations. A transition of operation region was observed in the TLP I–V characteristics which may be induced by space charge limited current effects. The experimental results show the breakdown in the long channel IZO TFTs only depends on the stress voltage level, which is related to the gate insulator. Furthermore, the evolution and mechanisms of prebreakdown degradation and latent failure were also presented. Due to hole trapping in the gate insulator and formation of localized states, threshold voltage decreases while electron field-effect mobility and subthreshold swing increase after TLP stress. Moreover, low-frequency noises (LFNs) before and after TLP stress were measured. Spatial distributions of trapped charges in the gate insulator were extracted based on LFN results.
Autors: Yuan Liu;Rongsheng Chen;Bin Li;Yun-Fei En;Yi-Qiang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 356 - 360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of the Heterogate Electron–Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor With Partially Doped Channels: Effects on Tunneling Distance Modulation and Occupancy Probabilities
Abstract:
Within the research in bilayer tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) exploiting interband tunneling phenomena with tunneling directions aligned with gate-induced electric fields, simulation results for the heterogate electron–hole bilayer TFET (HG-EHBTFET) showed that this type of devices succeeded in suppressing the parasitic tunneling leakage currents appearing in EHBTFETs as a result of the variable quantization strength inside the channel. In this paper, and conversely to standard approaches with entirely intrinsic channels, we investigate the possibility of modulating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance by acting on the subband discretization profiles through partially doped channels. We also analyze the impact of this pocket doping inside the channel on the occupancy probabilities involved in the BTBT processes in a germanium HG-EHBTFET.
Autors: José L. Padilla;Cristina Medina-Bailón;Carlos Navarro;Cem Alper;Francisco Gamiz;Adrian Mihai Ionescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 339 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis on the Operation of Negative Differential Resistance FinFET With Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Threshold Selector
Abstract:
A negative differential resistance fin-shaped field-effect transistor (NDR-FinFET) using a Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 threshold selector (TS) is investigated. From the measured input transfer characteristic of NDR-FinFET, the following results are demonstrated: 1) superior reduction of off current by a factor of 350 (as compared to a baseline FinFET); 2) on current of NDR-FinFET comparable to that of the baseline FinFET; and 3) subthreshold slope of 3 mV/decade at 300 K. The operating principle of NDR-FinFET is demonstrated using MATLAB simulation. In the on-to-off and off-to-on switching processes, the existence of an unstable resistive switching region is verified through the comparison between simulation data and experimental results. The major device parameters that affect the formation of the unstable resistive switching region are revealed. Finally, it is proposed that: 1) lowering the hold voltage of the TS and 2) applying the drain voltage comparable to the threshold voltage can have the NDR-FinFET to work appropriately (i.e., not in unstable region).
Autors: Jaemin Shin;Eunah Ko;Changhwan Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis With Histogram of Connectivity: For Automated Evaluation of Piping Layout
Abstract:
An autonomous framework to evaluate layout of a piping design in the form of piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) according to a set of standards of marine and offshore industry is proposed. The method starts with transforming a P&ID into a vector in . Transformation is done based on a concept introduced for piping known as Histogram of Connectivity. The proposed descriptor captures two essential properties of P&ID: attributes of each component and connectivity among the components. Next, linear support vector machine (SVM) is used to learn a classifier from existing compliant and noncompliant designs. Subsequently, the linear classifier can be used to check if an unseen design complies with the standards. In addition, to enable follow up on noncompliant design including correction or modification, a method to analyze the reason of noncompliance prediction by the learned SVM model is introduced. The method has demonstrated encouraging performance in two challenging data sets of designs created with advice from experienced engineers in the industry, based on International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) and Rules for Classification of Ships of Lloyd’s Register. Note to Practitioners—This paper is motivated by need of marine and offshore industry for automated solution for design appraisal. This paper aims to address this issue by using a machine learning-based approach. Some compliant and noncompliant designs are provided to a developed algorithm for a machine (or computer) to learn. After learning is completed, the machine is able to classify unseen designs as compliant or noncompliant. As highlighted in this paper, the developed method has demonstrated encouragin- performance in two case studies, including specific parts in MARPOL and Rules of Lloyd’s Register. For adoption by industry, necessary steps include collecting some designs (compliant and noncompliant) available in an organization and feeding these into the developed method for learning by machine before it can predict. With ability of highlighting possible connections that cause noncompliance, follow up and correction on a noncompliant design is made possible.
Autors: Wei Chian Tan;I-Ming Chen;Sinno Jialin Pan;Hoon Kiang Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 381 - 392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Model for the Threshold Voltage of ${p}$ -(Al)GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors
Abstract:
An analytical model for the calculation of the threshold voltage for enhancement-mode (E-mode) -(Al)GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. The ON-state behavior (at low output voltages) of both -GaN HEMTs and -AlGaN HEMTs—including the gate injection transistor—are discussed in detail, and closed expressions for the threshold voltage of both devices are deduced. It is found that the threshold voltage values for both devices are close to one another, and that there is an ideal upper limit when the -type doping in the AlGaN gate is perfectly tailored, yielding more positive threshold voltages. This ideal case might be difficult to realize technologically, but can serve as a benchmark for the of -(Al)GaN HEMTs.
Autors: Benoit Bakeroot;Arno Stockman;Niels Posthuma;Steve Stoffels;Stefaan Decoutere;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 79 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analyzing Home Automation and Networking Technologies
Abstract:
Due to the rapid advancements in networking and automation technologies, the concept of smart homes has started taking shape. AT&T Digital Life, Schneider's Wiser homes, and Qualcomm's M2M communication, among others, are examples of ventures by conglomerates into the business of home automation. Three-quarters of homes in the United States possess computers, and more than two-thirds of those are connected to the Internet. Wireless networking in the form of Wi-Fi is present in 17% of homes.
Autors: Eshan Shailendra;Praneet Kaur Bhatia;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 27 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analyzing the Training Processes of Deep Generative Models
Abstract:
Among the many types of deep models, deep generative models (DGMs) provide a solution to the important problem of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. However, training DGMs requires more skill, experience, and know-how because their training is more complex than other types of deep models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We develop a visual analytics approach for better understanding and diagnosing the training process of a DGM. To help experts understand the overall training process, we first extract a large amount of time series data that represents training dynamics (e.g., activation changes over time). A blue-noise polyline sampling scheme is then introduced to select time series samples, which can both preserve outliers and reduce visual clutter. To further investigate the root cause of a failed training process, we propose a credit assignment algorithm that indicates how other neurons contribute to the output of the neuron causing the training failure. Two case studies are conducted with machine learning experts to demonstrate how our approach helps understand and diagnose the training processes of DGMs. We also show how our approach can be directly used to analyze other types of deep models, such as CNNs.
Autors: Mengchen Liu;Jiaxin Shi;Kelei Cao;Jun Zhu;Shixia Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 77 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Angel-Eye: A Complete Design Flow for Mapping CNN Onto Embedded FPGA
Abstract:
Convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a successful algorithm in the region of artificial intelligence and a strong candidate for many computer vision algorithms. But the computation complexity of CNN is much higher than traditional algorithms. With the help of GPU acceleration, CNN-based applications are widely deployed in servers. However, for embedded platforms, CNN-based solutions are still too complex to be applied. Various dedicated hardware designs on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been carried out to accelerate CNNs, while few of them explore the whole design flow for both fast deployment and high power efficiency. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art CNN models and CNN-based applications. Requirements on memory, computation and the flexibility of the system are summarized for mapping CNN on embedded FPGAs. Based on these requirements, we propose Angel-Eye, a programmable and flexible CNN accelerator architecture, together with data quantization strategy and compilation tool. Data quantization strategy helps reduce the bit-width down to 8-bit with negligible accuracy loss. The compilation tool maps a certain CNN model efficiently onto hardware. Evaluated on Zynq XC7Z045 platform, Angel-Eye is faster and better in power efficiency than peer FPGA implementation on the same platform. Applications of VGG network, pedestrian detection and face alignment are used to evaluate our design on Zynq XC7Z020. NIVIDA TK1 and TX1 platforms are used for comparison. Angel-Eye achieves similar performance and delivers up to better energy efficiency.
Autors: Kaiyuan Guo;Lingzhi Sui;Jiantao Qiu;Jincheng Yu;Junbin Wang;Song Yao;Song Han;Yu Wang;Huazhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 35 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Antinull 2-D Waveguide Power Transfer Based on Standing Wave Diversity
Abstract:
We propose a phase-tunable and termination-switchable multiport feeding system for antinull 2-D waveguide power transfer (2DWPT). 2DWPT systems using an open- or short-ended waveguide sheet generate standing waves in the sheet. Because of the standing wave pattern, the efficiency of the power transmission to a receiver (RX) strongly depends on its position and it can drop to almost zero at some points, which are referred to as nulls. The proposed system is capable of changing the standing wave pattern. By selecting an appropriate standing wave pattern according to the RX position, null generation at the RX can be avoided. We refer to this concept as standing wave diversity. In the proposed multiport system, three diversity methods are implemented: port selection, termination selection, and constructive superposition diversity. The effectiveness of these methods is explained by simple theoretical analyses. Our experimental measurement results agree with the analysis results and demonstrate that the proposed system can eliminate nulls and improve the average efficiency of power transfer to arbitrary RX positions.
Autors: Akihito Noda;Hiroyuki Shinoda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 306 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Apodized Spiral Bragg Grating Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator
Abstract:
We demonstrate an apodization technique by tapering the corrugations of spiral Bragg grating waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform, for the fundamental transverse magnetic mode. The transmission and reflection responses of uniform and apodized spiral Bragg grating waveguides are experimentally compared to show higher sidelobe suppression ratios by the proposed apodization scheme. We also present an apodized, period-chirped spiral Bragg grating waveguide, and the group delay of the proposed device has been measured; the results show an efficient suppression in the ripples of the group delay response.
Autors: Minglei Ma;Zhitian Chen;Han Yun;Yun Wang;Xu Wang;Nicolas A. F. Jaeger;Lukas Chrostowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 111 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application of Evolutionary Computation for Berth Scheduling at Marine Container Terminals: Parameter Tuning Versus Parameter Control
Abstract:
Considering a substantial increase in the international seaborne containerized trade volumes, marine container terminal operators have to improve efficiency of the processes inside their terminals in order to meet the growing demand. An efficient berth scheduling is of a high importance for the terminal’s performance, as it significantly influences the turnaround time of vessels. This paper proposes a novel Evolutionary Algorithm to assist with berth scheduling at marine container terminals that, unlike published to date studies on berth scheduling, applies a parameter control strategy. Specifically, an adaptive mechanism is developed for the mutation operator, in which the mutation rate is altered based on feedback from the search. The objective of the proposed mixed integer model aims to minimize the total weighted vessel service cost. A set of numerical experiments are conducted to assess performance of the developed algorithm based on a comparison against a typical Evolutionary Algorithm that applies a constant mutation rate value, determined from the parameter tuning analysis. Results indicate that the optimality gap does not exceed 0.80% for both algorithms. Furthermore, deployment of the adaptive mechanism for the mutation operator yields an average of 5.4% and 8.5% savings in terms of the total weighted vessel service cost for medium and large size problem instances, respectively, without a significant increase in the computational time.
Autors: Maxim A. Dulebenets;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 25 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applying Pragmatics Principles for Interaction with Visual Analytics
Abstract:
Interactive visual data analysis is most productive when users can focus on answering the questions they have about their data, rather than focusing on how to operate the interface to the analysis tool. One viable approach to engaging users in interactive conversations with their data is a natural language interface to visualizations. These interfaces have the potential to be both more expressive and more accessible than other interaction paradigms. We explore how principles from language pragmatics can be applied to the flow of visual analytical conversations, using natural language as an input modality. We evaluate the effectiveness of pragmatics support in our system Evizeon, and present design considerations for conversation interfaces to visual analytics tools.
Autors: Enamul Hoque;Vidya Setlur;Melanie Tory;Isaac Dykeman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 309 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applying Software Engineering Standards in Very Small Entities: From Startups to Grownups
Abstract:
Very small entities (VSEs) are organizations with up to 25 people. The ISO/IEC 29110 series of standards and guides target VSEs with little or no experience or expertise in selecting the appropriate processes from lifecycle standards and tailoring them to a project’s needs. This article gives an overview of ISO/IEC 29110, some examples of VSEs that have implemented it, and those implementations’ results.
Autors: Claude Y. Laporte;Mirna Munoz;Jezreel Mejia Miranda;Rory V. O’Connor;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 99 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Lighting Systems: The First Electrical Distribution Systems [History]
Abstract:
From about 1885 to 1915, the most common means of lighting streets was the use of arc lamps. These lamps and the systems by which they were supplied power were very technologically sophisticated. These were the first electrical distribution systems. The manufacturing companies that made the equipment for arc lighting went on to be the companies that launched the so-called electrical age.
Autors: Robert D. Barnett;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 56 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Voltage Characteristics in Ultrahigh-Pressure Nitrogen Including Supercritical Region
Abstract:
A supercritical (SC) fluid is formed when both pressure and temperature of a fluid exceed the critical point, where distinct gas and liquid phases no longer exist. SC fluids demonstrate combined properties of gas and liquid, which make them interesting to investigate them as an arc extinction medium. This paper focuses on the arc voltage characteristics of industrial grade nitrogen subjected to different filling pressures up to 98 bar including SC region. Pressure, arc duration, current, and distance dependence of the arc are investigated by arc voltage measurement. It has been found that arc voltage increases with filling pressure without any abrupt change during the transition from gas into the SC region. Arc duration and current dependence of the arc voltage are not significant in the investigated parameter range. Arc voltage measurement with different electrode gaps suggests that the electrode voltage drop does not vary with filling pressure.
Autors: Fahim Abid;Kaveh Niayesh;Erik Jonsson;Nina Sasaki Støa-Aanensen;Magne Runde;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 187 - 193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Architectural Synthesis of Multi-SIMD Dataflow Accelerators for FPGA
Abstract:
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) boast abundant resources with which to realise high-performance accelerators for computationally demanding operations. Highly efficient accelerators may be automatically derived from Signal Flow Graph (SFG) models by using architectural synthesis techniques, but in practical design scenarios, these currently operate under two important limitations - they cannot efficiently harness the programmable datapath components which make up an increasing proportion of the computational capacity of modern FPGA and they are unable to automatically derive accelerators to meet a prescribed throughput or latency requirement. This paper addresses these limitations. SFG synthesis is enabled which derives software-programmable multicore single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) accelerators which, via combined offline characterisation of multicore performance and compile-time program analysis, meet prescribed throughput requirements. The effectiveness of these techniques is demonstrated on tree-search and linear algebraic accelerators for 802.11n WiFi transceivers, an application for which satisfying real-time performance requirements has, to this point, proven challenging for even manually-derived architectures.
Autors: Yun Wu;John McAllister;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 43 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arimoto–Rényi Conditional Entropy and Bayesian $M$ -Ary Hypothesis Testing
Abstract:
This paper gives upper and lower bounds on the minimum error probability of Bayesian -ary hypothesis testing in terms of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy of an arbitrary order . The improved tightness of these bounds over their specialized versions with the Shannon conditional entropy () is demonstrated. In particular, in the case where is finite, we show how to generalize Fano’s inequality under both the conventional and list-decision settings. As a counterpart to the generalized Fano’s inequality, allowing to be infinite, a lower bound on the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy is derived as a function of the minimum error probability. Explicit upper and lower bounds on the minimum error probability are obtained as a function of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy for both positive and negative . Furthermore, we give upper bounds on the minimum error probability as functions of the Rényi divergence. In the setup of discrete memoryless channels, we analyze the exponentially vanishing decay of the Arimoto–Rényi conditional entropy of the transmitted codeword given the channel output when averaged over a random-coding ensemble.
Autors: Igal Sason;Sergio Verdú;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 4 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ARMET: Behavior-Based Secure and Resilient Industrial Control Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a design methodology to develop reliable and secure industrial control systems (ICSs) based on the behavior of their computational resources (i.e., process/application) and underlying physical resources (e.g., the controlled plant). The methodology has three independent, but complementary, components that employ novel approaches and techniques in the design of reliable and secure ICSs. First, we introduce reliable-and-secure-by-design development of secure industrial control applications through stepwise sound refinement of an executable specification, employing deductive synthesis to enforce functional and nonfunctional (e.g., security and safety) properties of ICS applications. Second, we present a runtime security monitor at the middleware level of ICSs that protects ICS operation in the field through comparison of the application execution and the application specification execution in real time; the runtime security monitor can be synthesized from the executable specification. Finally, based on the specification, we perform a vulnerability analysis for false data injection (FDI) attacks, which leads to ICS application designs that are resilient to this type of attacks. We demonstrate the methodology through its application to a basic and typical ICS example application, describing all the tools used and ARMET, the middleware monitor that constitutes the core component of the methodology.
Autors: Muhammad Taimoor Khan;Dimitrios Serpanos;Howard Shrobe;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 106, issue:1, pages: 129 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Intelligence in the Rising Wave of Deep Learning: The Historical Path and Future Outlook [Perspectives]
Abstract:
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science and a technology aimed at developing the theories, methods, algorithms, and applications for simulating and extending human intelligence. Modern AI enables going from an old world-where people give computers rules to solve problems-to a new world-where people give computers problems directly and the machines learn how to solve them on their own using a set of algorithms. An algorithm is a self-contained sequence of instructions and actions to be performed by a computational machine. Starting from an initial state and initial input, the instructions describe computational steps, which, when executed, proceed through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing an output and terminating at a final ending state. AI algorithms are a rich set of algorithms used to perform AI tasks, notably those pertaining to perception and cognition that involve learning from data and experiences simulating human intelligence.
Autors: Li Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 180 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Material Single Layer to Model the Field Penetration Through Thin Shields in Finite-Elements Analysis
Abstract:
A new artificial material single layer (AMSL) model is presented to solve shielding problem. The field penetration through the conductive shield is described by lossy transmission line equations. The resulting equations are used to numerically synthetize an equivalent material for the shield region having the same geometrical configuration of the original shield, but different specific constants. The AMSL method is very accurate and highly efficient since it allows to discretizing the shield region using only a single layer of finite elements avoiding the fine discretization required by the finite-element method (FEM) to model the skin effect. The most relevant aspect of the proposed procedure is that the AMSL method can be easily implemented in FEM-based commercial software tools.
Autors: Mauro Feliziani;Silvano Cruciani;Tommaso Campi;Francesca Maradei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 56 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessing Dynamic Balance Performance During Exergaming Based on Speed and Curvature of Body Movements
Abstract:
Improving balance performance among the elderly is of utmost importance because of the increasing number of injuries and fatalities caused by fall incidences. Digital games controlled by body movements (exergames) have been proposed as a way to improve balance among older people. However, the assessment of balance performance in real-time during exergaming remains a challenging task. This assessment could be used to provide instantaneous feedback and automatically adjust the exergame difficulty. Such features could potentially increase the motivation of the player, thus augmenting the effectiveness of exergames. As clear differences in balance performance have been identified between older and younger people, distinguishing between older and younger adults can help identifying measures of balance performance. We used generalized linear models to investigate whether the assessment of balance performance based on movement speed can be improved by incorporating curvature of the movement trajectory into the analysis. Indeed, our results indicated that curvature improves the performance of the models. Five-fold cross validation indicated that our method is promising for the assessment of balance performance in real-time by showing more than 90% classification accuracy. Finally, this method could be valuable not only for exergaming, but also for real-time assessment of body movements in sports, rehabilitation, and medicine.
Autors: Venustiano Soancatl Aguilar;Jasper J. van de Gronde;Claudine J. C. Lamoth;Natasha M. Maurits;Jos B. T. M. Roerdink;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 171 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessing the Graphical Perception of Time and Speed on 2D+Time Trajectories
Abstract:
We empirically evaluate the extent to which people perceive non-constant time and speed encoded on 2D paths. In our graphical perception study, we evaluate nine encodings from the literature for both straight and curved paths. Visualizing time and speed information is a challenge when the x and y axes already encode other data dimensions, for example when plotting a trip on a map. This is particularly true in disciplines such as time-geography and movement analytics that often require visualizing spatio-temporal trajectories. A common approach is to use 2D+time trajectories, which are 2D paths for which time is an additional dimension. However, there are currently no guidelines regarding how to represent time and speed on such paths. Our study results provide InfoVis designers with clear guidance regarding which encodings to use and which ones to avoid; in particular, we suggest using color value to encode speed and segment length to encode time whenever possible.
Autors: Charles Perin;Tiffany Wun;Richard Pusch;Sheelagh Carpendale;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 698 - 708
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessment and Enhancement of SAR Noncoherent Change Detection of Sea-Surface Oil Spills
Abstract:
Oil spills are one of the most dangerous catastrophes that threaten the oceans. Therefore, detecting and monitoring oil spills by means of remote sensing techniques that provide large-scale assessments is of critical importance to predict, prevent, and clean oil contamination. In this study, the detection of an oil spill using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is considered. Detection of the oil spill is performed using change detection algorithms between imagery acquired at different times. The specific algorithms used are the correlation coefficient change statistic and the intensity ratio change statistic algorithms. These algorithms and the probabilistic selection of threshold criteria are reviewed and discussed. A recently offered change detection method that depends on generating change maps of two images in a temporal sequence is used. An initial change map is obtained by cumulatively adding sequences in such a manner that common change areas are excluded and uncommon change areas are included. A final change map is obtained by comparing the first and the last images in the temporal sequence. This method requires at least three images to be employed and can be generalized to longer temporal image sequences. The purpose of this approach is to provide a double-check mechanism to the conventional approach and, thus, reduce the probability of false alarm while enhancing change detection. The algorithms are tested on 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill imagery. It is shown that the intensity ratio change statistic is a better tool for identification of the changes due to the oil spill compared to the correlation coefficient change statistic. It is also shown that the proposed method can reduce the probability of false alarm.
Autors: Cihan Bayındır;J. David Frost;Christopher F. Barnes;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 211 - 220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessment of Spasticity by a Pendulum Test in SCI Patients Who Exercise FES Cycling or Receive Only Conventional Therapy
Abstract:
Increased muscle tone and exaggerated tendon reflexes characterize most of the individuals after a spinal cord injury (SCI). We estimated seven parameters from the pendulum test and used them to compare with the Ashworth modified scale of spasticity grades in three populations (retrospective study) to assess their spasticity. Three ASIA B SCI patients who exercised on a stationary FES bicycle formed group F, six ASIA B SCI patients who received only conventional therapy were in the group C, and six healthy individuals constituted the group H. The parameters from the pendulum test were used to form a single measure, termed the PT score, for each subject. The pendulum test parameters show differences between the F and C groups, but not between the F and H groups, however, statistical significance was limited due to the small study size. Results show a small deviation from the mean for all parameters in the F group and substantial deviations from the mean for the parameters in the C group. PT scores show significant differences between the F and C groups and the C and H groups and no differences between the F and C groups. The correlation between the PT score and Ashworth score was 0.88.
Autors: Lana Popović-Maneski;Antonina Aleksić;Amine Metani;Vance Bergeron;Radoje Čobeljić;Dejan B. Popović;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 181 - 187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Association and Load Optimization With User Priorities in Load-Coupled Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the network utility maximization problem with various user priorities via jointly optimizing user association, load distribution, and power control in a load-coupled heterogeneous network. In order to tackle the nonconvexity of the problem, we first analyze the problem by obtaining the optimal resource allocation strategy in closed form and characterizing the optimal base station load distribution pattern. Both observations are shown essential in simplifying the original problem and making it possible to transform the nonconvex load distribution and power control problem into convex reformulation via exponential variable transformation. An iterative algorithm with low complexity is accordingly presented to obtain a suboptimal solution to the joint optimization problem. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves better performance than conventional approaches.
Autors: Zhaohui Yang;Wei Xu;Jianfeng Shi;Hao Xu;Ming Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 324 - 338
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asymptotic Performance of Coded Slotted ALOHA With Multipacket Reception
Abstract:
In this letter, we develop a converse bound on the asymptotic load threshold of coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) schemes with -multipacket reception capabilities at the receiver. Density evolution is used to track the average probability of packet segment loss and an area matching condition is applied to obtain the converse. For any given CSA rate, the converse normalized to increases with , which is in contrast with the results obtained so far for slotted ALOHA schemes based on successive interference cancellation. We show how the derived bound can be approached using spatially coupled CSA.
Autors: Čedomir Stefanović;Enrico Paolini;Gianluigi Liva;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 105 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asymptotic Tracking and Robustness of MAS Transitions Under a New Communication Topology
Abstract:
We have recently applied the principles of continuum mechanics to develop a new leader–follower model for the collective motion of a multiagent system (MAS). Agents are modeled as particles of a continuum body that can deform in () under a specific class of mappings, called the homogeneous transformation. This paper shows how a desired homogeneous deformation is uniquely specified based on the trajectories chosen by () leaders, and it is acquired by the remaining agents, called followers, through local communication. Under this setup, every follower interacts with local agents with fixed communication weights that are uniquely determined based on the initial positions of the agents. Although asymptotic convergence of the agents’ transient positions to the desired final positions (prescribed by a homogeneous transformation) can be assured by applying the proposed paradigm, follower agents deviate from the desired positions during evolution. The main objective of this paper is to assure that the transient error, the difference between the actual and desired positions of each follower, converges to zero during evolution. For this purpose, each leader chooses a time-dependent polynomial vector of order () () for its trajectory connecting two consecutive way points, and each follower applies continuous time or discrete time linear time invariant dynamics to- update its state based on the states of local agents. The second objective of this paper is to develop a paradigm for the homogeneous deformation of an MAS that is robust to communication failure. For this purpose, we will show how followers can acquire desired positions prescribed by a homogeneous mapping to preserve volumetric ratios under either fixed or switching communication topologies, where there is no restriction on the number of the agents, if every follower communicates with local agents. In addition, agents’ collective motion can be stably continued even if some followers give up communication with other agents at some time during evolution.

Note to Practitioners—A multiagent system evolution as continuum deformation is a novel idea for avoiding interagent collision and collisions of agents with obstacles, while a capability to manage large deformations (expiation or contraction) is provided. This idea becomes more interesting if deviations of agents from desired positions defined by continuum deformation vanish during evolution when agents only access neighboring agent state information.

Autors: Hossein Rastgoftar;Harry G. Kwatny;Ella M. Atkins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 16 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asymptotics of Input-Constrained Erasure Channel Capacity
Abstract:
In this paper, we examine an input-constrained erasure channel and we characterize the asymptotics of its capacity when the erasure rate is low. More specifically, for a general memoryless erasure channel with its input supported on an irreducible finite-type constraint, we derive partial asymptotics of its capacity, using some series expansion type formula of its mutual information rate; and for a binary erasure channel with its first-order Markovian input supported on the -RLL constraint based on the concavity of its mutual information rate with respect to some parameterization of the input, we numerically evaluate its first-order Markov capacity and further derive its full asymptotics. The asymptotics obtained in this paper, when compared with the recently derived feedback capacity for a binary erasure channel with the same input constraint, enable us to draw the conclusion that feedback may increase the capacity of an input-constrained channel, even if the channel is memoryless.
Autors: Yonglong Li;Guangyue Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 148 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asynchronous-Logic QDI Quad-Rail Sense-Amplifier Half-Buffer Approach for NoC Router Design
Abstract:
We propose a low area overhead and power-efficient asynchronous-logic quasi-delay-insensitive (QDI) sense-amplifier half-buffer (SAHB) approach with quad-rail (i.e., 1-of-4) data encoding. The proposed quad-rail SAHB approach is targeted for area- and energy-efficient asynchronous network-on-chip (ANoC) router designs. There are three main features in the proposed quad-rail SAHB approach. First, the quad-rail SAHB is designed to use four wires for selecting four ANoC router directions, hence reducing the number of transistors and area overhead. Second, the quad-rail SAHB switches only one out of four wires for 2-bit data propagation, hence reducing the number of transistor switchings and dynamic power dissipation. Third, the quad-rail SAHB abides by QDI rules, hence the designed ANoC router features high operational robustness toward process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations. Based on the 65-nm CMOS process, we use the proposed quad-rail SAHB to implement and prototype an 18-bit ANoC router design. When benchmarked against the dual-rail counterpart, the proposed quad-rail SAHB ANoC router features 32% smaller area and dissipates 50% lower energy under the same excellent operational robustness toward PVT variations. When compared to the other reported ANoC routers, our proposed quad-rail SAHB ANoC router is one of the high operational robustness, smallest area, and most energy-efficient designs.
Autors: Weng-Geng Ho;Kwen-Siong Chong;Kyaw Zwa Lwin Ne;Bah-Hwee Gwee;Joseph S. Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 196 - 200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» At the Heart of a Sustainable Energy Transition: The Public Acceptability of Energy Projects
Abstract:
Public acceptability is at the heart of changing the energy system toward a more sustainable way of energy production and use. Without public acceptability and support for changes, a sustainable energy transition is unlikely to be viable. We argue that public acceptability is often addressed too late and should be incorporated into the planning process from the start. Moreover, engineers, policy makers, and project developers tend to misjudge the complexity and causes of public resistance, trying to find the magic bullet to "solve" the lack of public acceptability. Such attempts are likely to be ineffective, or even counterproductive, if they fail to address people's key concerns surrounding energy projects. There is not a one-size-fits-all solution: public acceptability is a dynamic process that depends on the context, the specific project at stake, and the parties involved.
Autors: Goda Perlaviciute;Geertje Schuitema;Patrick Devine-Wright;Bonnie Ram;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 49 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Atmospheric Correction of Hyperspectral GCAS Airborne Measurements Over the North Atlantic Ocean and Louisiana Shelf
Abstract:
The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Airborne Simulator (GCAS) instrument has been used as a precursor for a hyperspectral instrument on the future geostationary satellite, yet its ability to “measure” ocean reflectance needs to be evaluated. Here, we demonstrate its capacity through vicarious calibration and atmospheric correction of data collected during flight campaigns over the Louisiana shelf in September 2013 and over the North Atlantic Ocean in November 2015. GCAS-measured at-sensor radiance was first vicariously calibrated using concurrent measurements by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and radiative transfer simulations with the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN). Then, atmospheric correction has been implemented using MODTRAN-developed lookup tables and the traditional Gordon and Wang “black pixel” approach but with nonzero water-leaving radiance in the near-infrared accounted for through iteration. The atmospheric correction algorithm was applied to the vicariously calibrated GCAS imagery, with resulting compared with concurrent MODIS and in situ . The comparison shows a mean relative difference of about 25% () between GCAS and in situ in the blue–green bands for clear to moderately turbid waters.
Autors: Minwei Zhang;Chuanmin Hu;Matthew G. Kowalewski;Scott J. Janz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 168 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automated Evaluation of Upper-Limb Motor Function Impairment Using Fugl-Meyer Assessment
Abstract:
The Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) is the most popular instrument for evaluating upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. However, it is a labor-intensive and time-consuming method. This paper proposes a novel automated FMA system to overcome these limitations of the FMA. For automation, we used Kinect v2 and force sensing resistor sensors owing to their convenient installation as compared with body-worn sensors. Based on the linguistic guideline of the FMA, a rule-based binary logic classification algorithm was developed to assign FMA scores using the extracted features obtained from the sensors. The algorithm is appropriate for clinical use, because it is not based on machine learning, which requires additional learning processes with a large amount of clinical data. The proposed system was able to automate 79% of the FMA tests because of optimized sensor selection and the classification algorithm. In clinical trials conducted with nine stroke patients, the proposed system exhibited high scoring accuracy (92%) and time efficiency (85% reduction in clinicians’ required time).
Autors: Seunghee Lee;Yang-Soo Lee;Jonghyun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 125 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automated Registration of 3-D Knee Implant Models to Fluoroscopic Images Using Lipschitzian Optimization
Abstract:
This paper describes an automated method for registering 3-D models of metallic knee implants to single-plane radiographic images. We develop a multistage approach that identifies the correct pose by matching altered dilations of an edge-detected image with the silhouette of an implant model. The location of the similarity function’s minimum is found using a novel optimization routine that combines the Dividing Rectangles algorithm with properties of the registration metric. Depending on the implant type (tibial or femoral), this technique reliably converges under maximum displacements of approximately 25 to 55 millimeters for translation components and 25° to 55° for Euler angles. The method proves to be robust to noise from bones and soft tissue. After an initial guess for the first image in the sequence, subsequent frames can be automatically registered from the optimum pose in the previous image.
Autors: Paris D. L. Flood;Scott A. Banks;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 326 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Generation Control Using an Energy Storage System in a Wind Park
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates the operation of a 1 MW/2 MWh grid-tied battery energy storage system (BESS) in a 10 MW wind R&D park for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for 29 days. The efficiency and utilization of the BESS in the context of regulation and grid integration are examined. The response time for the BESS is as low as one second, which is faster than the current accepted practice of a conventional generator with governor control. Using PJM's performance template gives an average performance score of 93% while the storage is providing AGC. However, because the storage system only charges when there is sufficient wind energy and spent significant time in maintenance mode, the 29-day performance average is only 65%. The battery was able to carry out some mode of AGC for 64% of the test period. When energy costs and battery degradation are considered, utilizing the battery costs USD 19,000 over the 29-day period, whereas the potential income from AGC, charging only with wind power, was USD 9,037. This 29-day demonstration shows that batteries have fast response and can perform AGC, but within a wind farm AGC is unlikely to be suitable without changes in the tariff schemes.
Autors: Tapabrata Chakraborty;David Watson;Marianne Rodgers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 198 - 205
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Generation of Social Event Storyboard From Image Click-Through Data
Abstract:
Recent studies have shown that a noticeable percentage of Web search traffic is about social events. While traditional Web sites can only show human-edited events, in this paper, we present a novel system to automatically detect events from search log data and generate storyboards where the events are arranged chronologically. We chose image search log as the resource for event mining, as search logs can directly reflect people’s interests. To discover events from log data, we present a smooth nonnegative matrix factorization framework, which combines the information of query semantics, temporal correlations, search logs, and time continuity. Moreover, we consider the time factor to be an important element, since different events will develop in different time tendencies. In addition, to provide a media-rich and visually appealing storyboard, each event is associated with a set of representative photos arranged along a timeline. These relevant photos are automatically selected from image search results by analyzing image content features. We use celebrities as our test domain, which takes a large percentage of image search traffic. Experiments consisting of Web search traffic on 200 celebrities, for a period of six months, show very encouraging results compared with handcrafted editorial storyboards.
Autors: Jun Xu;Tao Mei;Rui Cai;Houqiang Li;Yong Rui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 242 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Implementation of Progressive FastICA Peel-Off for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition
Abstract:
This study presents automatic decomposition of high density surface electromyogram (EMG) signals through a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework. By incorporating FastICA, constrained FastICA and a peel-off strategy, the PFP can progressively expand the set of motor unit spike trains contributing to the EMG signal. A series of signal processing techniques were applied and integrated in this study to automatically implement the two tasks that often require human operator interaction during application of the PFP framework, including extraction of motor unit spike trains from FastICA outputs and reliability judgment of the extracted motor units. Based on these advances, an automatic PFP (APFP) framework was consequently developed. The decomposition performance of APFP was validated using simulated high density surface EMG signals. The APFP was also evaluated with experimental surface EMG signals, and the decomposition results were comparable to those achieved from the PFP with human operator interaction.
Autors: Maoqi Chen;Xu Zhang;Xiang Chen;Ping Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 144 - 152
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Localization of the Needle Target for Ultrasound-Guided Epidural Injections
Abstract:
Accurate identification of the needle target is crucial for effective epidural anesthesia. Currently, epidural needle placement is administered by a manual technique, relying on the sense of feel, which has a significant failure rate. Moreover, misleading the needle may lead to inadequate anesthesia, post dural puncture headaches, and other potential complications. Ultrasound offers guidance to the physician for identification of the needle target, but accurate interpretation and localization remain challenges. A hybrid machine learning system is proposed to automatically localize the needle target for epidural needle placement in ultrasound images of the spine. In particular, a deep network architecture along with a feature augmentation technique is proposed for automatic identification of the anatomical landmarks of the epidural space in ultrasound images. Experimental results of the target localization on planes of 3-D as well as 2-D images have been compared against an expert sonographer. When compared with the expert annotations, the average lateral and vertical errors on the planes of 3-D test data were 1 and 0.4 mm, respectively. On 2-D test data set, an average lateral error of 1.7 mm and vertical error of 0.8 mm were acquired.
Autors: Mehran Pesteie;Victoria Lessoway;Purang Abolmaesumi;Robert N. Rohling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 81 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Parameter Estimation for Reusable Software Components of Modular and Reconfigurable Cyber-Physical Production Systems in the Domain of Discrete Manufacturing
Abstract:
The main feature of cyber-physical production systems is its adaptability. They adapt quickly to new requirements such as new products or product variants. Nowadays, a bottleneck is the automation system, for which high manual engineering efforts are needed: Today, on-site technicians write and rewrite automation software, configure real-time communication protocols and create system configurations consisting of machine timing, physical dimensions of products, sensitivity, and motor control accelerations and velocities. Cyber-physical production systems often solve this dilemma by relying on reusable software components, which are composed in the overall automation software. However, this solution comes with a price, reusable software components need free parameters to adjust to the individual production configurations. This paper addresses this central research question and presents a novel parameter estimation approach to choose automatically optimal system configurations for cyber-physical production systems. Different scenarios from discrete manufacturing plants are used to evaluate the solution approach.
Autors: Jens Otto;Birgit Vogel-Heuser;Oliver Niggemann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 275 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Subretinal Fluid Segmentation of Retinal SD-OCT Images With Neurosensory Retinal Detachment Guided by Enface Fundus Imaging
Abstract:
Objective: Accurate segmentation of neurosensory retinal detachment (NRD) associated subretinal fluid in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is vital for the assessment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). A novel two-stage segmentation algorithm was proposed, guided by Enface fundus imaging. Methods: In the first stage, Enface fundus image was segmented using thickness map prior to detecting the fluid-associated abnormalities with diffuse boundaries. In the second stage, the locations of the abnormalities were used to restrict the spatial extent of the fluid region, and a fuzzy level set method with a spatial smoothness constraint was applied to subretinal fluid segmentation in the SD-OCT scans. Results: Experimental results from 31 retinal SD-OCT volumes with CSC demonstrate that our method can achieve a true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and positive predicative value (PPV) of 94.3%, 0.97%, and 93.6%, respectively, for NRD regions. Our approach can also discriminate NRD-associated subretinal fluid from subretinal pigment epithelium fluid associated with pigment epithelial detachment with a TPVF, FPVF, and PPV of 93.8%, 0.40%, and 90.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We report a fully automatic method for the segmentation of subretinal fluid. Significance: Our method shows the potential to improve clinical therapy for CSC.
Autors: Menglin Wu;Qiang Chen;XiaoJun He;Ping Li;Wen Fan;SongTao Yuan;Hyunjin Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 87 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatically Tracing Dependability Requirements via Term-Based Relevance Feedback
Abstract:
In many critical industrial information systems, tracking a dependability requirement is instrumental to the verification and validation (V&V) of security, privacy, and other dependability concerns. Automated traceability tools employ information retrieval methods to recover candidate links, which saves much manual effort. Integrating relevance feedback (RF) could potentially improve the retrieval effectiveness by soliciting the relevance judgments on a subset of the retrieval results and then incorporating the feedback into subsequent retrieval. However, little is known about how to use RF to trace dependability requirements. In this paper, we propose a novel term-based RF algorithm that leverages the term usage context to recommend positive and negative feedback. Experiments on two software datasets show that our algorithm significantly outperforms the contemporary link-based RF tracing method. Our work not only contributes a new solution to dependability requirements’ V&V, but also enables further automation to reduce the manual effort in the development life cycle of dependable industrial systems.
Autors: Wentao Wang;Arushi Gupta;Nan Niu;Li Da Xu;Jing-Ru C. Cheng;Zhendong Niu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 342 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Back-Biasing to Performance and Reliability Evaluation of UTBB FDSOI, Bulk FinFETs, and SOI FinFETs
Abstract:
FinFETs and ultrathin body and buried oxide fully depleted silicon on insulator (UTBB-FDSOI) are the main transistors currently used in advanced integrated circuits (ICs). The tunable electrical properties via back-biasing facilitate the threshold voltage adjustment and enable IC designers to achieve a highly efficient and low-power-consuming operation. This study compares the modulation rate before and after hot carrier stress (HCS) of bulk FinFETs, UTBB-FDSOI (tBOX = 20 nm), and SOI FinFETs (t BOX>150 nm) via back-biasing. Simplified back-impedance models are proposed based on the impact of back-biasing on electrical characterization. Additionally, HCS with back-biasing shows a higher impact on UTBB FDSOI than on bulk FinFETs during reliability test, implying that the tBOX plays a critical role in the modulation rate. The lifetime with HCS indicates that the bulk FinFETs exhibit faster downscaling degradation than UTBB FDSOI probably due to the nature of multigate devices whose vertical electrical field should increase faster than planer devices during scaling.
Autors: Wen-Teng Chang;Cheng-Ting Shih;Jhao-Lin Wu;Shih-Wei Lin;Li-Gong Cin;Wen-Kuan Yeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 36 - 40
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Backstepping Design for Incremental Stability of Stochastic Hamiltonian Systems with Jumps
Abstract:
Incremental stability is a property of dynamical systems ensuring the uniform asymptotic stability of each trajectory rather than a fixed equilibrium point or trajectory. Here, we introduce a notion of incremental stability for stochastic control systems and provide its description in terms of existence of a notion of so-called incremental Lyapunov functions. Moreover, we provide a backstepping controller design scheme providing controllers along with corresponding incremental Lyapunov functions rendering a class of stochastic control systems, namely, stochastic Hamiltonian systems with jumps, incrementally stable. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we design a controller making a spring pendulum system in a noisy environment incrementally stable.
Autors: Pushpak Jagtap;Majid Zamani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 255 - 261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Backward-Mode Photoacoustic Imaging Using Illumination Through a CMUT With Improved Transparency
Abstract:
In this paper, we describe a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) with improved transparency for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with backside illumination. The CMUT was fabricated on a glass substrate with indium–tin oxide bottom electrodes. The plate was a 1.5- silicon layer formed over the glass cavities by anodic bonding, with a 1- silicon nitride passivation layer on top. The fabricated device shows approximately 30%–40% transmission in the wavelength range from 700 to 800 nm and approximately 40%–60% transmission in the wavelength range from 800 to 900 nm, which correspond to the wavelength range commonly used for in vivo PAI. The center frequency of the CMUT was 3.62 MHz in air and 1.4 MHz in immersion. Two preliminary PAI experiments were performed to demonstrate the imaging capability of the fabricated device. The first imaging target was a 0.7-mm diameter pencil lead in vegetable oil as a line target with a subwavelength cross section. A 2-mm-diameter single CMUT element with an optical fiber bundle attached to its backside was linearly scanned to reconstruct a 2-D cross-sectional PA image of the pencil lead. We investigated the spurious signals caused by the light absorption in the 1.5- silicon plate. For pencil lead as a strong absorber and also a strong reflector, the received echo signal due to the acoustic excitation generated by the absorption in silicon is approximately 30 dB lower than the received PA signal generated by the absorption in pencil lead at the wavelength of 830 nm. The second imaging target was a “l- op-shape” polyethylene tube filled with indocyanine green solution () suspended using fishing lines in a tissue-mimicking material. We formed a 3-D volumetric image of the phantom by scanning the transducer in the - and -directions. The two experimental imaging results demonstrated that CMUTs with the proposed structure are promising for PAI with backside illumination.
Autors: Xiao Zhang;Xun Wu;Oluwafemi Joel Adelegan;Feysel Yalçın Yamaner;Ömer Oralkan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 85 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Band-Switchable Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Resonator and Filter
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new band-switchable substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) filter structure and its design method. The filter can have a passband either in - or -band, or have two passbands—one in -band and the other one in -band—at the same time. The presented design method allows us to obtain the bandwidths of two passbands independently. To verify the presented filter structure and design method, we have designed, fabricated, and measured three bandpass filters having three different pairs of bandwidths using frequency-tunable SIW resonators. By virtue of the frequency-tunable resonators, the filter can be continuously tuned in both frequency bands.
Autors: Boyoung Lee;Beyoungyoun Koh;Seunggoo Nam;Tae-Hak Lee;Juseop Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 147 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bandgap Engineering and Strain Effects of Core–Shell Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
DC characteristics of n-type SiGe heterojunction nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) adopting a core–shell structure are investigated using 3-D numerical simulation. Different mole fractions between the core and the shell regions induce strain effects along the nanowire, which modulate the energy bandgap and thus the dc performance of the devices. The SiGe core–shell TFETs with greater mole fractions in the core regions increase the drive currents greatly by both Ge content and strain effects which decrease the tunneling length and increase the band-to-band (BTB) generation rate according to Kane’s nonlocal tunneling model. In addition, tensile (compressive) strains for the shell (core) regions as well as shear strains reduce the energy bandgap according to the deformation potential theory, decreasing the subthreshold swing as well as increasing the BTB generation rate. Compared to all other Si/Ge heterojunction TFETs, the proposed SiGe core–shell TFETs are superior with high drive currents and on/off-current ratios.
Autors: Jun-Sik Yoon;Kihyun Kim;M. Meyyappan;Chang-Ki Baek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 277 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bandwidth Investigation on Half-Height Pin in Ridge Gap Waveguide
Abstract:
Gap waveguide is a promising transmission structure, especially for millimeter-wave (mmW) and terahertz applications. It does not require conductive connection between the upper and the lower plates, which makes this technology gain advantages over conventional rectangular waveguides and substrate integrated waveguides in an mmW and terahertz regime. Different fabrication methods for gap waveguides should be employed for different frequency bands applied, such as molding, milling, die forming, electrical discharge machining, microelectromechanical systems, and 3-D printing. Therefore, different pin forms used in gap waveguides are required to match the applied fabrication methods. In this paper, a new pin form, the half-height-pin form, in gap waveguides is proposed for reducing the fabrication cost, and its stopband characteristics are investigated and compared with the previous full-height pins in gap waveguides at the -band. A device of a double-ridged gap waveguide with two 90° bends for verifying the stopband characteristic analysis of the new pin form has been designed and manufactured. The measured data confirm our analysis and simulations.
Autors: Fangfang Fan;Jian Yang;Vessen Vassilev;Ashraf Uz Zaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 100 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BASTet: Shareable and Reproducible Analysis and Visualization of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data via OpenMSI
Abstract:
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a transformative imaging method that supports the untargeted, quantitative measurement of the chemical composition and spatial heterogeneity of complex samples with broad applications in life sciences, bioenergy, and health. While MSI data can be routinely collected, its broad application is currently limited by the lack of easily accessible analysis methods that can process data of the size, volume, diversity, and complexity generated by MSI experiments. The development and application of cutting-edge analytical methods is a core driver in MSI research for new scientific discoveries, medical diagnostics, and commercial-innovation. However, the lack of means to share, apply, and reproduce analyses hinders the broad application, validation, and use of novel MSI analysis methods. To address this central challenge, we introduce the Berkeley Analysis and Storage Toolkit (BASTet), a novel framework for shareable and reproducible data analysis that supports standardized data and analysis interfaces, integrated data storage, data provenance, workflow management, and a broad set of integrated tools. Based on BASTet, we describe the extension of the OpenMSI mass spectrometry imaging science gateway to enable web-based sharing, reuse, analysis, and visualization of data analyses and derived data products. We demonstrate the application of BASTet and OpenMSI in practice to identify and compare characteristic substructures in the mouse brain based on their chemical composition measured via MSI.
Autors: Oliver Rübel;Benjamin P. Bowen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 1025 - 1035
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beyond Tasks: An Activity Typology for Visual Analytics
Abstract:
As Visual Analytics (VA) research grows and diversifies to encompass new systems, techniques, and use contexts, gaining a holistic view of analytic practices is becoming ever more challenging. However, such a view is essential for researchers and practitioners seeking to develop systems for broad audiences that span multiple domains. In this paper, we interpret VA research through the lens of Activity Theory (AT)—a framework for modelling human activities that has been influential in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We first provide an overview of Activity Theory, showing its potential for thinking beyond tasks, representations, and interactions to the broader systems of activity in which interactive tools are embedded and used. Next, we describe how Activity Theory can be used as an organizing framework in the construction of activity typologies, building and expanding upon the tradition of abstract task taxonomies in the field of Information Visualization. We then apply the resulting process to create an activity typology for Visual Analytics, synthesizing a wide range of systems and activity concepts from the literature. Finally, we use this typology as the foundation of an activity-centered design process, highlighting both tensions and opportunities in the design space of VA systems.
Autors: Darren Edge;Nathalie Henry Riche;Jonathan Larson;Christopher White;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 267 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biased Multi-LED Beamforming for Multicarrier Visible Light Communications
Abstract:
Visible light communication (VLC) equipped with multiple light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can provide near ubiquitous indoor coverage for both communication and illumination. This paper introduces the concept of biased beamforming to explore the full potential of multicarrier multi-LED VLC systems. Biased beamforming includes two components to be jointly designed: a direct current (DC) bias on each LED and a beamforming vector on each subcarrier. We first analyze the impact on clipping in multi-LED VLC systems. Next, we consider the joint optimization of beamforming and biasing to maximize data rate. We find the optimal beamformer and analytically characterize its structure. We further optimize the bias on each LED and provide the globally optimal solution in closed form for flat channels, which leads to several critical insights that are helpful for practical systems. We also derive a simplified near-optimal solution for dispersive channels and develop an efficient method for biased beamforming. The performance of the proposed biased beamforming design outperforms existing solutions.
Autors: Xintong Ling;Jiaheng Wang;Xiao Liang;Zhi Ding;Chunming Zhao;Xiqi Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 106 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BiDots: Visual Exploration of Weighted Biclusters
Abstract:
Discovering and analyzing biclusters, i.e., two sets of related entities with close relationships, is a critical task in many real-world applications, such as exploring entity co-occurrences in intelligence analysis, and studying gene expression in bio-informatics. While the output of biclustering techniques can offer some initial low-level insights, visual approaches are required on top of that due to the algorithmic output complexity. This paper proposes a visualization technique, called BiDots, that allows analysts to interactively explore biclusters over multiple domains. BiDots overcomes several limitations of existing bicluster visualizations by encoding biclusters in a more compact and cluster-driven manner. A set of handy interactions is incorporated to support flexible analysis of biclustering results. More importantly, BiDots addresses the cases of weighted biclusters, which has been underexploited in the literature. The design of BiDots is grounded by a set of analytical tasks derived from previous work. We demonstrate its usefulness and effectiveness for exploring computed biclusters with an investigative document analysis task, in which suspicious people and activities are identified from a text corpus.
Autors: Jian Zhao;Maoyuan Sun;Francine Chen;Patrick Chiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 195 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biomaterial Gelatin Film Based Crossbar Structure Resistive Switching Devices
Abstract:
Crossbar structural resistive switching devices (memristors) are fabricated using biomaterial gelatin film as the dielectric layer. The performance of the devices and the effects of gelatin film thickness and baking temperature are investigated. Results show that the optimal gelatin film thickness for the memristors is ∼80 nm and baking temperature is ∼105 °C. The optimized memristors show a bipolar resistive switching behavior with the resistance ratio between the high-resistance state and low-resistance state over 102, the retention time over 106 s without any obvious deterioration, and excellent stability and reliability, demonstrating its good potential for applications. A conductive atomic force microscopy is used to study the conductivity of the gelatin films under various biases, and the results indicate that the conductive filaments are responsible for the resistive switching behavior of the gelatin-based memristors.
Autors: Luping Ge;Weipeng Xuan;Shuting Liu;Shuyi Huang;Xiaozhi Wang;Shurong Dong;Hao Jin;Jikui Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 78 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bistatic High-Frequency Radar Ocean Surface Cross Section Incorporating a Dual-Frequency Platform Motion Model
Abstract:
The first- and second-order bistatic high-frequency radar cross sections of the ocean surface are derived with a dual-frequency platform motion model. Simulations are made to illustrate how the bistatic angle affects the cross section. Not surprisingly, the energy of the second-order radar cross section is seen to decrease as the bistatic angle increases. Simulations also depict the relation between the bistatic angle and the modulation level caused by the platform motion. This work provides a theoretical foundation for future practical investigations to determine suitable geometries for the deployment of a platform-mounted high-frequency bistatic surface wave radar.
Autors: Yue Ma;Eric W. Gill;Weimin Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 205 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Identification of Thermal Models and Power Sources From Thermal Measurements
Abstract:
The ability to sense the temperatures and power consumption of various key components of a chip is central to the operation of modern integrated circuits, such as processors. While modern chips often include a number of embedded thermal sensors, they lack the ability to sense power at fine granularity. This paper proposes a new direction to simultaneously identify the thermal models and the fine-grain power consumption of a chip from just the measurements of the thermal sensors and the total power consumption. Our identification technique is blind as it does not require design knowledge of the thermal-power model to identify the power sources. We investigate the main challenges in blind identification, which are the permutation and scaling ambiguities, and propose novel techniques to resolve these ambiguities. We implement our technique and apply it in three contexts. First, we implement it within a controlled simulation environment, which enables us to verify its accuracy and analyze its sensitivity to relevant issues, such as measurement noise and number of available training samples. Second, we apply it on a real multi-core CPU + GPU processor-based system, where we show the ability to identify the runtime power consumption of the individual cores using just the total power measurement and the measurements of the embedded thermal sensors under different workloads. Third, we apply it for non-invasive power sensing of chips by inverting the temperatures measured using an external infrared imaging camera. We show that our technique consistently improves the modeling and sensing accuracy of integrated circuits.
Autors: Sherief Reda;Kapil Dev;Adel Belouchrani;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 680 - 691
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blinded with Science or Informed by Charts? A Replication Study
Abstract:
We provide a reappraisal of Tal and Wansink's study “Blinded with Science”, where seemingly trivial charts were shown to increase belief in drug efficacy, presumably because charts are associated with science. Through a series of four replications conducted on two crowdsourcing platforms, we investigate an alternative explanation, namely, that the charts allowed participants to better assess the drug's efficacy. Considered together, our experiments suggest that the chart seems to have indeed promoted understanding, although the effect is likely very small. Meanwhile, we were unable to replicate the original study's findings, as text with chart appeared to be no more persuasive - and sometimes less persuasive - than text alone. This suggests that the effect may not be as robust as claimed and may need specific conditions to be reproduced. Regardless, within our experimental settings and considering our study as a whole (), the chart's contribution to understanding was clearly larger than its contribution to persuasion.
Autors: Pierre Dragicevic;Yvonne Jansen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 781 - 790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Block Precoding for Peak-Limited MISO Broadcast VLC: Constellation-Optimal Structure and Addition-Unique Designs
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the design of energy-efficient space-time modulation for peak-limited MISO broadcast visible light communication (VLC) systems by cooperatively managing the non-negative multiuser interference. We first characterize a constellation-optimal structure that maximizes the worst-case minimum Euclidean distance of all users for a general space-time modulation design. It turns out that the optimal space-time constellation can be constructed via the spatial repetition of the optimal multidimensional constellation in time dimension over ideal additive white Gaussian noise channels. Then, based on this structure, we specifically design two classes of energy-efficient time-dimensional constellations: 1) for the integer overall bit rate, we design the optimal linear precoded block design, which admits fast maximum likelihood demodulation algorithms. 2) for the non-integer case, we propose a nonlinear precoding scheme called block coded modulation, which sums the code word sets of the optimal linear design and a block channel code. In addition, we show that these two classes of designs are addition-unique, thus, generating an energy-efficient mapping from users’ data to the transmitted constellations. This property enables the efficient demodulation of the sum signal from a noisy received signal as well as the decoding of individual signal from the estimated sum signal. Extensive computer simulations indicate that our addition-unique designs have remarkable performance gains over the currently available zero-forcing, minimum mean square error and time-division multiple access methods for the multiuser multi-input-single-output VLC broadcast systems.
Autors: Yan-Yu Zhang;Hong-Yi Yu;Jian-Kang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 78 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Reviews [7 Reviews]
Abstract:
The following books are reviewed: Extreme-Temperature and Harsh-Environment Electronics by V. K. Khanna; Advances in Magnetic Materials—Processing, Properties, and Performance by S. Zhang and D. Zhao; Self-Healing Materials by G. Wypych; Renewable Energy Integration, 2nd Edition by L. E. Jones; High-Power Converters and AC Drives, 2nd Edition by B. Wu and M. Narimani; Power System SCADA and Smart Grids by M. S. Thomas and J. D. McDonald; Energy Storage by G. M. Crawley.
Autors: John J. Shea;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 64 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Brain Control of an External Device by Extracting the Highest Force-Related Contents of Local Field Potentials in Freely Moving Rats
Abstract:
A local field potential (LFP) signal is an alternative source to neural action potentials for decoding kinematic and kinetic information from the brain. Here, we demonstrate that the better extraction of force-related features from multichannel LFPs improves the accuracy of force decoding. We propose that applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) filter on the envelopes of separate frequency bands (band-specific CCA) separates non-task related information from the LFPs. The decoding accuracy of the continuous force signal based on the proposed method were compared with three feature reduction methods: 1) band-specific principal component analysis (band-specific PCA) method that extract the components which leads to maximum variance from the envelopes of different frequency bands; 2) correlation coefficient-based (CC-based) feature reduction that selects the best features from the envelopes sorted based on the absolute correlation coefficient between each envelope and the target force signal; and 3) mutual information-based (MI-based) feature reduction that selects the best features from the envelopes sorted based on the mutual information between each envelope and output force signal. The band-specific CCA method outperformed band-specific PCA with 11% improvement, CC-based feature reduction with 16% improvement, and MI-based feature reduction with 18% improvement. In the online brain control experiments, the real-time decoded force signal from the 16-channel LFPs based on the proposed method was used to move a mechanical arm. Two rats performed 88 trials in seven sessions to control the mechanical arm based on the 16-channel LFPs.
Autors: Abed Khorasani;Reza Foodeh;Vahid Shalchyan;Mohammad Reza Daliri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 18 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Braking Control in Railway Vehicles: A Distributed Preview Approach
Abstract:
The braking control problem for railway vehicles is considered. Communication flow from the front coaches to the rear ones is introduced, and a novel distributed braking control algorithm is proposed that, based on preview control theory, allows one to reduce the stopping distance. The effectiveness of the designed algorithm is corroborated by simulation comparisons to other standard approaches.
Autors: Bruno Picasso;Danilo Caporale;Patrizio Colaneri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 189 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bregman Storage Functions for Microgrid Control
Abstract:
In this paper, we contribute a theoretical framework that sheds a new light on the problem of microgrid analysis and control. The starting point is an energy function comprising the “kinetic” energy associated with the elements that emulate the rotating machinery and terms taking into account the reactive power stored in the lines and dissipated on shunt elements. We then shape this energy function with the addition of an adjustable voltage-dependent term, and construct so-called Bregman storage functions satisfying suitable dissipation inequalities. Our choice of the voltage-dependent term depends on the voltage dynamics under investigation. Several microgrid controllers that have similarities or coincide with dynamics already considered in the literature are captured in our incremental energy analysis framework. The twist with respect to existing results is that our incremental storage functions allow for a large signal analysis of the coupled microgrid. This obviates the need for simplifying linearization techniques, and for the restrictive decoupling assumption in which the frequency dynamics is fully separated from the voltage one. A complete Lyapunov stability analysis of the various systems is carried out along with a discussion on their active and reactive power sharing properties.
Autors: Claudio De Persis;Nima Monshizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 53 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging from Goals to Tasks with Design Study Analysis Reports
Abstract:
Visualization researchers and practitioners engaged in generating or evaluating designs are faced with the difficult problem of transforming the questions asked and actions taken by target users from domain-specific language and context into more abstract forms. Existing abstract task classifications aim to provide support for this endeavour by providing a carefully delineated suite of actions. Our experience is that this bottom-up approach is part of the challenge: low-level actions are difficult to interpret without a higher-level context of analysis goals and the analysis process. To bridge this gap, we propose a framework based on analysis reports derived from open-coding 20 design study papers published at IEEE InfoVis 2009–2015, to build on the previous work of abstractions that collectively encompass a broad variety of domains. The framework is organized in two axes illustrated by nine analysis goals. It helps situate the analysis goals by placing each goal under axes of specificity (Explore, Describe, Explain, Confirm) and number of data populations (Single, Multiple). The single-population types are Discover Observation, Describe Observation, Identify Main Cause, and Collect Evidence. The multiple-population types are Compare Entities, Explain Differences, and Evaluate Hypothesis. Each analysis goal is scoped by an input and an output and is characterized by analysis steps reported in the design study papers. We provide examples of how we and others have used the framework in a top-down approach to abstracting domain problems: visualization designers or researchers first identify the analysis goals of each unit of analysis in an analysis stream, and then encode the individual steps using existing task classifications with the context of the goal, the level of specificity, and the number of populations involved in the analysis.
Autors: Heidi Lam;Melanie Tory;Tamara Munzner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 435 - 445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging the Gap: Dialogue Between Engineers & Social Scientists [From the Editor]
Abstract:
Autors: Michael Henderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bring It to the Pitch: Combining Video and Movement Data to Enhance Team Sport Analysis
Abstract:
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.
Autors: Manuel Stein;Halldor Janetzko;Andreas Lamprecht;Thorsten Breitkreutz;Philipp Zimmermann;Bastian Goldlücke;Tobias Schreck;Gennady Andrienko;Michael Grossniklaus;Daniel A. Keim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 13 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BRPL: Backpressure RPL for High-Throughput and Mobile IoTs
Abstract:
RPL, an IPv6 routing protocol for Low power Lossy Networks (LLNs), is considered to be the de facto routing standard for the Internet of Things (IoT). However, more and more experimental results demonstrate that RPL performs poorly when it comes to throughput and adaptability to network dynamics. This significantly limits the application of RPL in many practical IoT scenarios, such as an LLN with high-speed sensor data streams and mobile sensing devices. To address this issue, we develop BRPL, an extension of RPL, providing a practical approach that allows users to smoothly combine any RPL Object Function (OF) with backpressure routing. BRPL uses two novel algorithms, QuickTheta and QuickBeta, to support time-varying data traffic loads and node mobility respectively. We implement BRPL on Contiki OS, an open-source operating system for the Internet of Things. We conduct an extensive evaluation using both real-world experiments based on the FIT IoT-LAB testbed and large-scale simulations using Cooja over 18 virtual servers on the Cloud. The evaluation results demonstrate that BRPL not only is fully backward compatible with RPL (i.e., devices running RPL and BRPL can work together seamlessly), but also significantly improves network throughput and adaptability to changes in network topologies and data traffic loads. The observed packet loss reduction in mobile networks is, at a minimum, 60 and up to 1,000 percent can be seen in extreme cases.
Autors: Yad Tahir;Shusen Yang;Julie McCann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 29 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bubble Treemaps for Uncertainty Visualization
Abstract:
We present a novel type of circular treemap, where we intentionally allocate extra space for additional visual variables. With this extended visual design space, we encode hierarchically structured data along with their uncertainties in a combined diagram. We introduce a hierarchical and force-based circle-packing algorithm to compute Bubble Treemaps, where each node is visualized using nested contour arcs. Bubble Treemaps do not require any color or shading, which offers additional design choices. We explore uncertainty visualization as an application of our treemaps using standard error and Monte Carlo-based statistical models. To this end, we discuss how uncertainty propagates within hierarchies. Furthermore, we show the effectiveness of our visualization using three different examples: the package structure of Flare, the S&P 500 index, and the US consumer expenditure survey.
Autors: Jochen Görtler;Christoph Schulz;Daniel Weiskopf;Oliver Deussen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 719 - 728
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buffer-Aided Relay Selection With Equal-Weight Links in Cooperative Wireless Networks
Abstract:
In this letter, we discuss multiple links with equal weights, in buffer size based relay selection schemes in cooperative wireless networks. A general relay selection factor is defined, which includes the weight of the link as the first metric and the link quality, or priority, as the second metric for different cases of the same weight. The Markov chain based theoretical framework is employed to evaluate the outage probability, delay and throughput of the system. The proposed scheme is evaluated for symmetric and asymmetric channel conditions. The link quality based second selection metric achieves lower outage probability, while the link priority based selection shows significant improvements in terms of delay and throughput. Theoretical results are validated through extensive Monte carlo simulations.
Autors: Waseem Raza;Nadeem Javaid;Hina Nasir;Nabil Alrajeh;Nadra Guizani;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 133 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buffer-Aided Relaying For The Two-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Channel With Self-Interference
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the fading two-hop full-duplex (FD) relay channel with self-interference, which is comprised of a source, an FD relay impaired by self-interference, and a destination, where a direct source-destination link does not exist. For this channel, we propose three buffer-aided relaying schemes with adaptive reception-transmission at the FD relay for the cases when the source and the relay both perform continuous-rate transmission with adaptive-power allocation, continuous-rate transmission with fixed-power allocation, and discrete-rate transmission, respectively. The proposed buffer-aided relaying schemes enable the FD relay to adaptively select to either receive, transmit, or simultaneously receive and transmit in a given time slot based on the qualities of the receiving, transmitting, and self-interference channels, a degree-of-freedom unavailable without buffer-aided relaying. Our numerical results show that significant performance gains are achieved using the proposed buffer-aided relaying schemes compared with conventional FD relaying, where the FD relay is forced to always simultaneously receive and transmit, and to buffer-aided half-duplex relaying, where the half-duplex relay cannot simultaneously receive and transmit. The main implication of this paper is that FD relaying systems without buffer-aided relaying miss-out on significant performance gains.
Autors: Mohsen Mohammadkhani Razlighi;Nikola Zlatanov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 477 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building Stochastic Non-Stationary Daily Load/Generation Profiles for Distribution Planning Studies
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new method to generate synthetic load and generation profiles that can be customized to simulate different groups of consumers or energy production technologies. The method relies upon generic individual profiles and specific aggregate profiles to set up a discrete-time non-stationary Markov process that realistically reproduces high-resolution daily load volatility and time-dependency. The framework to set up the process and the details for its parameterization are provided in the paper for arbitrary load-discretization and time-resolution. Three examples with real data and 15 min resolution are used to discuss the limitations of the method proposed and the accuracy of its results.
Autors: João A. C. Machado;Pedro M. S. Carvalho;Luís A. F. M. Ferreira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 911 - 920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» C–FSCV: Compressive Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry for Brain Dopamine Recording
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel compressive sensing framework for recording brain dopamine levels with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode. Termed compressive FSCV (C–FSCV), this approach compressively samples the measured total current in each FSCV scan and performs basic FSCV processing steps, e.g., background current averaging and subtraction, directly with compressed measurements. The resulting background-subtracted faradaic currents, which are shown to have a block-sparse representation in the discrete cosine transform domain, are next reconstructed from their compressively sampled counterparts with the block sparse Bayesian learning algorithm. Using a previously recorded dopamine dataset, consisting of electrically evoked signals recorded in the dorsal striatum of an anesthetized rat, the C–FSCV framework is shown to be efficacious in compressing and reconstructing brain dopamine dynamics and associated voltammograms with high fidelity (correlation coefficient, ), while achieving compression ratio, CR, values as high as ~ 5. Moreover, using another set of dopamine data recorded 5 minutes after administration of amphetamine (AMPH) to an ambulatory rat, C–FSCV once again compresses (CR = 5) and reconstructs the temporal pattern of dopamine release with high fidelity (), leading to a true-positive rate of 96.4% in detecting AMPH-induced dopamine transients.
Autors: Hossein Zamani;Hamid Reza Bahrami;Preeti Chalwadi;Paul A. Garris;Pedram Mohseni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 51 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calculation of Resonance in Planar and Cylindrical Microstrip Structures Using a Hybrid Technique
Abstract:
A hybrid technique was employed for the analysis of the resonance frequency of thin planar and cylindrical microstrip structures with the patches of arbitrary geometry. The proposed technique utilizes a combination of Galerkin’s moment method and a finite-element method (FEM). In this approach, an FEM is adopted to calculate the patch surface current densities, and a method of moments is utilized to calculate the resonance frequencies of the microstrip structure. The technique allows the analysis of different shaped patches. To verify the validity of the approach, the results were compared with those obtained from commercial software and actual measurements of manufactured prototypes.
Autors: Rafal Lech;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 497 - 500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calculation of Volumetric Sound Field of Pulsed Air-Coupled Ultrasound Transducers Based on Single-Plane Measurements
Abstract:
Quantitative and reproducible air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) testing requires characterization of the volumetric pressure fields radiated by ACU probes. In this paper, a closed-form reradiation method combining the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld integral and time-reversal acoustics is proposed, which allows calculation of both near- field and far-field based on a single-plane measurement. The method was validated for both 3-D (circular, square) and 2-D (rectangular) planar transducers in the 50–230 kHz range. The pressure fields were scanned with a calibrated microphone. The measurement window was at least four times the size of the transducer area and the grid step size was one third of the wavelength. Best results were observed by acquiring the measurement plane at near-field distance. The method accurately reproduces pulsed ultrasound waveforms and pressure distributions (RMSE <2.5% in far field and <5.5% in near field), even at the transducer radiation surface. The effects of speed of sound drifts during the scan in the pressure were negligible (RMSE <0.3%). The reradiation method clearly outperforms conventional baffled piston models. Possible applications are transducer manufacture control (imperfections at radiation surface) and calibration (on-axis pressure, side lobes, and beamwidth) together with generation of accurate source functions for quantitative nondestructive evaluation inverse problems.
Autors: Sergio J. Sanabria;Torben Marhenke;Roman Furrer;Jürg Neuenschwander;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 72 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calibration for Channel Reciprocity in Industrial Massive MIMO Antenna Systems
Abstract:
Massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna systems have received a great deal of interest due to their applicability to industrial network systems. One of the major obstacles that reducing the performance of massive MIMO system is reference signal (RS) overhead which can be increased as the number of transmitter antenna increases in frequency division duplexing (FDD) system. Using channel reciprocity in time division duplexing (TDD) system can significantly increase the RS overhead performance using channel reciprocity. However, to use the channel reciprocity, channel calibration is a significant challenge to overcome in real system design. There are various base station (BS) calibration methods that have already successfully applied to the current BS, while there are few methods for the calibration of distributed user entities (UEs) and/or industrial Internet of things (IIoT) devices. In this paper, we propose a distributed UE RF calibration method of massive MIMO systems that uses the power headroom report. The power headroom is typically reported from the UEs and/or IIoT devices to the BS periodically or aperiodically. By including additional amplitude RF impairment information in the power headroom report, we can successfully transfer the necessary information from UE to BS. The proposed scheme does not require additional feedback, and is in compliance with current standards. There are five schemes based on the kind of information transferred to BS and the way of making a calibration factor that can be multiplied to the estimated channel. Numerical analysis shows that the proposed schemes can significantly increase the spectral efficiency with little system burden, and thus can be a core technology for the realization of massive MIMO for industrial network systems.
Autors: Byung Moo Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 221 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calling Inspector Gadget [Microwave Surfing]
Abstract:
Discusses microwave technologies and gadgets for use in monitoring people's conversations and activities.
Autors: Rajeev Bansal;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 12 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Gains for Single- and Multi-User CAW in FBMC-OQAM Systems
Abstract:
Channel adaptive waveforms (CAWs) as an extension of channel adaptive modulation (CAM) have been shown to be a promising design concept for wireless communication systems in heterogeneous environments. In contrast to prior works, this letter investigates the performance gains for CAW based on channel capacity for cell-specific and user-specific system configurations for FilterBank MultiCarrier (FBMC) with offset quadrature amplitude modulation subcarrier modulation systems in consideration of required inter-user guard bands. The results show that the cell- and user-specific CAWs provide a low-complexity system design, which is capable of fighting the interference problem for systems without a cyclic prefix, thereby improving the cell capacity in urban and hilly environments up to 90%.
Autors: Martin Fuhrwerk;Jürgen Peissig;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 61 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Scaling of Cellular Networks: Impact of Bandwidth, Infrastructure Density and Number of Antennas
Abstract:
The availability of very wide spectrum in millimeter wave bands combined with large antenna arrays and ultra-dense networks raises two basic questions: What is the true value of overly abundant degrees of freedom and how can networks be designed to fully exploit them? This paper determines the capacity scaling of large cellular networks as a function of bandwidth, area, number of antennas, and base station density. It is found that the network capacity has a fundamental bandwidth scaling limit, beyond which the network becomes power-limited. An infrastructure multi-hop protocol achieves the optimal network capacity scaling for all network parameters. In contrast, current protocols that use only single-hop direct transmissions cannot achieve the capacity scaling in wideband regimes except in the special case when the density of base stations is taken to impractical extremes. This finding suggests that multi-hop communication will be important to fully realize the potential of next-generation cellular networks. Dedicated relays, if sufficiently dense, can also perform this task, relieving user nodes from the battery drain of cooperation. On the other hand, more sophisticated strategies such as hierarchical cooperation, that are essential for achieving capacity scaling in ad hoc networks, are unnecessary in the cellular context.
Autors: Felipe Gómez-Cuba;Elza Erkip;Sundeep Rangan;Francisco Javier González-Castaño;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 652 - 666
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Withholding Constrained by Operational Limits of Generation Under Financial Virtual Divestiture in a Day-Ahead Market
Abstract:
This paper develops an equilibrium-based model for ex ante analysis of capacity withholding under financial virtual divestiture in a day-ahead market, including one dominant producer and a number of small producers considered as a price-taking competitive fringe. We model the offering problem of the dominant producer as a bilevel optimization problem. In the upper-level problem, the dominant producer derives optimal strategy of physical capacity withholding restricted by operational limits of its own generating units and conditions stated in the financial virtual divestiture. In the lower-level problem, market operator clears the day-ahead market on an hourly basis. We recast the bilevel optimization problem as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints problem and convert it to a mixed integer linear programming problem. We show how the application of the financial virtual divestiture may mitigate market power in the day-ahead market, through a case study. The numerical results demonstrate that the dominant producer can exploit technological diversification of its own generating units to exercise market power, even in the presence of this market power mitigation policy.
Autors: Massoud Ameri;Morteza Rahimiyan;Mohammad Amin Latify;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 771 - 780
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cardiac Lesion Mapping In Vivo Using Intracardiac Myocardial Elastography
Abstract:
Radio frequency (RF) ablation of the myocardium is used to treat various cardiac arrhythmias. The size, spacing, and transmurality of lesions have been shown to affect the success of the ablation procedure; however, there is currently no method to directly image the size and formation of ablation lesions in real time. Intracardiac myocardial elastography (ME) has been previously used to image the decrease in cardiac strain during systole in the ablated region as a result of the lesion formation. However, the feasibility of imaging multiple lesions and identifying the presence of gaps between lesions has not yet been investigated. In this paper, RF ablation lesions () were generated in the left ventricular epicardium in three anesthetized canines. Two sets of two lesions each were created in close proximity to one another with small gaps (1.5 and 4 cm), while one set of two lesions was created directly next to each other with no gap. A clinical intracardiac echocardiography system was programmed to transmit a custom diverging beam sequence at 600 Hz and used to image the ablation site before and after the induction of ablation lesions. Cumulative strains were estimated over systole using a normalized cross-correlational displacement algorithm and a least-squares strain kernel. Afterward, lesions were excised and subjected to tetrazolium chloride staining. Results indicate that intracardiac ME was capable of imaging the reduction in systolic strain associated with the formation of an ablation lesion. Furthermore, lesion sets containing gaps were able to be distinguished from lesion sets created with no gaps. These results indicate that the end-systolic strain measured using intracardiac ME may be used to image the formation of lesions induced during an RF ablation procedure, in order to provide critical assessment of lesion viability during the interventional procedure.
Autors: Ethan Bunting;Clement Papadacci;Elaine Wan;Vincent Sayseng;Julien Grondin;Elisa E. Konofagou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 14 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cargo industry tests seaplane drones [News]
Abstract:
Two years after World War II, billionaire Howard Hughes personally piloted his "Spruce Goose" troop transport aircraft on the first and only flight of the largest seaplane ever built. It lasted barely a minute. Now, more than 70 years later, a U.S. startup is testing a new seaplane concept—one that could evolve into huge cargo drones that fly 109 metric tons of freight across the Pacific, touch down autonomously over water, and unload at ports around the world.
Autors: Jeremy Hsu;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 55, issue:1, pages: 12 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CasCADe: A Novel 4D Visualization System for Virtual Construction Planning
Abstract:
Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides an integrated 3D environment to manage large-scale engineering projects. The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry explores 4D visualizations over these datasets for virtual construction planning. However, existing solutions lack adequate visual mechanisms to inspect the underlying schedule and make inconsistencies readily apparent. The goal of this paper is to apply best practices of information visualization to improve 4D analysis of construction plans. We first present a review of previous work that identifies common use cases and limitations. We then consulted with AEC professionals to specify the main design requirements for such applications. These guided the development of CasCADe, a novel 4D visualization system where task sequencing and spatio-temporal simultaneity are immediately apparent. This unique framework enables the combination of diverse analytical features to create an information-rich analysis environment. We also describe how engineering collaborators used CasCADe to review the real-world construction plans of an Oil & Gas process plant. The system made evident schedule uncertainties, identified work-space conflicts and helped analyze other constructability issues. The results and contributions of this paper suggest new avenues for future research in information visualization for the AEC industry.
Autors: Paulo Ivson;Daniel Nascimento;Waldemar Celes;Simone DJ Barbosa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 687 - 697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cascaded Segmentation-Detection Networks for Text-Based Traffic Sign Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel text-based traffic sign detection framework with two deep learning components. More precisely, we apply a fully convolutional network to segment candidate traffic sign areas providing candidate regions of interest (RoI), followed by a fast neural network to detect texts on the extracted RoI. The proposed method makes full use of the characteristics of traffic signs to improve the efficiency and accuracy of text detection. On one hand, the proposed two-stage detection method reduces the search area of text detection and removes texts outside traffic signs. On the other hand, it solves the problem of multi-scales for the text detection part to a large extent. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art results on the publicly available traffic sign data set: Traffic Guide Panel data set. In addition, we collect a data set of text-based traffic signs including Chinese and English traffic signs. Our method also performs well on this data set, which demonstrates that the proposed method is general in detecting traffic signs of different languages.
Autors: Yingying Zhu;Minghui Liao;Mingkun Yang;Wenyu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 209 - 219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cation Distributions and Magnetic Properties of Cu-Doped Nanosized MnFe2O4 Synthesized by the Coprecipitation Method
Abstract:
Cu2+ substituted manganese ferrite nanoparticles (CuxMn1–xFe2O4, , 0.3, 0.5) were prepared using the Coprecipitation method. The effects of Cu2+ doped on the structure and the magnetic properties of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were carried to the morphological assessment and the percentage of Cu/Mn values. The crystallite size of the samples is in the range of ~35–42 nm, and the lattice parameter is decreased from 8.50 to 8.394 °A with Cu2+ content. Cation distribution and structural parameters of the synthesized powder were determined by Rietveld analysis of the XRD data. Room temperature VSM measurements show that the products have a ferromagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization () values in the range of ~42–30 emu/g. The results showed that the decrease of with increasing the copper concentration can be attributed to the influence of the occupancy in the specific sites and the difference in the magnetic moment of Cu2+ and Fe3+.
Autors: M. Khaleghi;H. Moradmard;S. Farjami Shayesteh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cell-to-Cell Fundamental Variability Limits Investigation in OxRRAM Arrays
Abstract:
In this letter, the fundamental variability limits of filament-based OxRRAM are investigated considering different transistor sizes and metal–insulator–metal (MIM) stacks featuring different materials and thicknesses. Cell-to-cell variability is analyzed through an extensive characterization of Forming, Set, and Reset operations on 4-kb OxRRAM arrays. The results obtained in terms of switching voltage variability and resistance variability from cell-to-cell are compared and discussed to identify the variability limiting component as a function of the conduction regime and to understand the impact of transistor MIM stack parameters on variability and performances.
Autors: Alessandro Grossi;Cristian Zambelli;Piero Olivo;Etienne Nowak;Gabriel Molas;Jean François Nodin;Luca Perniola;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 27 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Census Signal Temporal Logic Inference for Multiagent Group Behavior Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, we define a novel census signal temporal logic (CensusSTL) that focuses on the number of agents in different subsets of a group that complete a certain task specified by the STL. CensusSTL consists of an “inner logic” STL formula and an “outer logic” STL formula. We present a new inference algorithm to infer CensusSTL formulas from the trajectory data of a group of agents. We first identify the “inner logic” STL formula and then infer the subgroups based on whether the agents’ behaviors satisfy the “inner logic” formula at each time point. We use two different approaches to infer the subgroups based on similarity and complementarity, respectively. The “outer logic” CensusSTL formula is inferred from the census trajectories of different subgroups. We apply the algorithm in analyzing data from a soccer match by inferring the CensusSTL formula for different subgroups of a soccer team.

Note to Practitioners—The method described in this paper can be used to discover subgroups of agents and their behavior patterns based on spatial–temporal data of all agents in the group. The subgroups are formed by agents that behave similarly or complementarily for a certain task. The behavior patterns of the subgroups are expressed in the form of signal temporal logic statements. These are logical statements about the number of agents in the subgroups that are in certain states during a certain time interval. For example, if there are more than two blue agents in the region, then within 2 h, there will be more than three red agents in the same region. The behavior patterns inferred using this method can be used in: 1) ana- ysis of group behavior while performing a task, e.g., in sports tactical analysis and 2) prediction of future group behavior under similar situations.

Autors: Zhe Xu;A. Agung Julius;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 264 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ceramics for the Future: Advanced Millimeter-Wave Multilayer Multichip Module Integration and Packaging
Abstract:
The advantages of higher-frequency operation, such as wider bandwidth and finer spatial and temporal resolution, have led to increased interest in the use of millimeter-waves (mmWs) in both commercial and military applications-covering, in particular, areas ranging from high-speed wireless communication (including wireless local area networking, wireless gigabit communication, sensor networks, and fifthgeneration systems) to space science to security [1]-[5]. For biological and health applications, mmW imaging offers a superior, safer, and lower-cost alternative to conventional techniques [6], [7].
Autors: Kamal K. Samanta;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 22 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Change of Multivariate Mutual Information: From Local to Global
Abstract:
We study the change of multivariate mutual information among a set of random variables when some common randomness is added to or removed from a subset of the random variables. This is formulated more precisely as two new multiterminal secret key agreement problems that, respectively, ask how one can increase the secrecy capacity efficiently by adding common randomness to a small subset of users, and how one can simplify the source model by removing redundant common randomness that does not contribute to the secrecy capacity. Characterizations and strongly polynomial-time computations are derived for the rates of change, maximum usable increment, and redundancy. These results can be applied to study the communication complexity for secret key agreement.
Autors: Chung Chan;Ali Al-Bashabsheh;Qiaoqiao Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 57 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changes Impacting Our Publications [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Discusses the IEEE PSPB rules regarding the republication of papers in IEEE Xplore and assesses its impact on IAS publications.
Autors: Lanny Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 3 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changing Household Energy Usage: The Downsides of Incentives and How to Overcome Them
Abstract:
To combat climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that greenhouse gas emissions in the energy domain should be reduced by 90%, compared to 2010 emissions, between the years 2040 and 2070. In Europe, residential households consume about a quarter of total energy used (excluding the energy that is embodied in products). To contribute to the carbon emission reduction targets set by the IPCC , households need to reduce their fossilenergy use.
Autors: Ellen van der Werff;John Thogersen;Wandi Bruine de Bruin;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 42 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Capacity of Short-Range Ultrasonic Communications in Air
Abstract:
The use of ultrasound in air as a means of digital communications has been demonstrated in recent years. Due to electromagnetic compatibility, privacy, and security issues, this kind of transmission fits the requirements of many medical applications, body-area networks, and general wireless short-range systems, where the transmission takes place in a single room with the distance up to 10 m. In the literature, different models of airborne ultrasound transmission have been investigated, but not supported by discussion of the channel theoretical capacity. On the other hand, knowledge of this measure is essential in the design of an efficient communication link and allows identifying its potential areas of applications. In this letter, we calculate estimates of the Shannon limit for five different configurations of airborne ultrasound digital communication channels. Our evaluation is based on the numerical results available in the literature. The obtained estimates show that in case of systems with multichannel transmission and higher order modulation schemes, the achieved data rates are closest to theoretical boundaries, but still further work is needed in order to achieve more efficient data transmission in airborne ultrasound communication channels.
Autors: Gustaw Mazurek;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 117 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel-to-Channel Coupling in Normally-Off GaN Double-Channel MOS-HEMT
Abstract:
A previously reported normally-off GaN double-channel (DC-) MOS-HEMT with a gate recess into the upper channel layer has achieved a remarkably low . In this letter, we found that the double-channel structure itself does not guarantee a low without careful consideration of the electrical coupling between the two channels. A strong channel-to-channel (C2C) coupling between the two channels is critical to reduce in the DC-MOS-HEMT by exploiting both channels at the access region while allowing currents to converge into the heterojunction lower channel at the gate region. Otherwise, with a weak C2C coupling, the conduction through the upper channel is comprised due to the high-resistivity MOS-channel section at the gate region. The fabricated DC-MOS-HEMT with C2C distance () of 7.5 nm exhibits an appreciably lower than that with nm. Further analysis reveals the latter suffers from an increased sheet resistance at access region compared with the sheet resistance of the DC-heterostructure itself. A modified TLM characterization is proposed to analyze the C2C coupling in the DC-heterostructure. It is confirmed the DC-heterostructure with nm boasts a strong C2C coupling, while that with ${t}_{{textsf {C2C}}} = textsf {11.5}$ nm features relatively weak C2C coupling.
Autors: Jin Wei;Jiacheng Lei;Xi Tang;Baikui Li;Shenghou Liu;Kevin J. Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 59 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristic Mode Equations for Impedance Surfaces
Abstract:
Characteristic mode formalism is presented for closed surfaces modeled with the impedance boundary condition. The characteristic equations are expressed in terms of the electric, magnetic, and combined field integral operators (EFIO, MFIO, and CFIO). Similarly as for perfectly conducting (PEC) surfaces, the modal solutions based on EFIO (MFIO) are corrupted by spurious solutions, as the frequency coincides with the internal resonance frequency of a cavity with PEC (perfect magnetic conductor) walls, whereas the CFIO-based approach gives physically correct modal solutions.
Autors: Pasi Ylä-Oijala;Joni Lappalainen;Seppo Järvenpää;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 487 - 492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics Analysis and Image Processing for Full-Polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Based on Electromagnetic Scattering From Flat Horizontal Perfect Electric Conducting Reflector
Abstract:
In this paper, the physical optics method is employed to study the problem of characteristics analysis and image processing for full-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR), where electromagnetic scattering from a flat horizontal perfect electric conducting (PEC) reflector is involved. The model of the full-polarization SAR echo from a small region of flat horizontal PEC reflector is deduced based on the dyadic Green’s function theory. With the available echo model, image processing and results are presented for the full-polarization SAR. For the horizontal co-polarization channel, the amplitude of imaging result descends with the squint angle, where the well-focused imaging result can always be obtained. On the contrary, the amplitude of cross-polarization channel imaging results is increased with the squint angle. When the radar works in the side-looking mode or low-squint mode, the cross-polarization channel echo cannot be well focused. For the high-squint mode, it can be well focused. For the horizontal co-polarization channel, the amplitude of well-focused result can be approximately regarded as a constant for all squint angles. The effectiveness of the characteristics analysis results is demonstrated via simulated and real measured Ka-band airborne full-polarization SAR data.
Autors: Shuang-Xi Zhang;Meng-Dao Xing;Kun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 313 - 327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics and Influencing Factors of the Postarc Current in Vacuum DC Interruption
Abstract:
The postarc current (PAC) is an important parameter, which can indicate the interrupting capacity of breakers. According to the amplitude of the PAC, the appearance of the arc before current zero and the quantity of residual metal vapor particles in the electrode distance after current zero can be studied qualitatively. In order to investigate the characteristics of PAC in direct current (dc) interruption, a high-speed hybrid actuator was designed, and the forced current zero method was used to carry out a series of dc interrupting experiments in the synthetic test circuit. Also, the equipment for measuring the PAC was established to investigate the factors influencing on the PAC, including the amplitude of rated breaking current, electrode distance, and commutation frequency. The experimental results indicated that PAC presented to be instable in a certain range, due to the different contact structures, arcing positions, and so on. To some extent, the instability of PAC reflects the sheath growth process after the current zero. In addition, the amplitude of PAC changes with the variation of electrode distances. For the same distances, PAC keeps stable in a certain range. When the rated breaking current is less than 800 A, PAC increases with a high growth rate. However, the one increases with a low growth rate when the rated breaking current varies within 800–2000A. For different commutation frequencies, PAC has a significant growth with the increase of the commutation frequency. It is for the reason that more residual metal vapor particles exist in the electrode distance after current zero when the commutation frequency is higher, which goes against to dc interruption.
Autors: Taotao Qin;Ying Zhang;Enyuan Dong;Jiyan Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 180 - 186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization and Validation of the Slim-Form Open-Ended Coaxial Probe for the Dielectric Characterization of Biological Tissues at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies
Abstract:
This letter provides the calibration and optimization steps required for obtaining wideband millimeter-wave dielectric characteristics of human biological tissues using the commercially available slim-form open-ended coaxial probe. At the first stage, the reflection coefficients measured at the probe’s calibration plane are transformed to the reflection coefficients of a desired aperture plane. Then, a rational optimization problem is solved to convert the aperture-plane reflection coefficients to dielectric permittivities. The measurement protocol is verified using three reference liquids and a test liquid representing dielectric characteristics of biological tissues.
Autors: Amir Mirbeik-Sabzevari;Negar Tavassolian;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 85 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Au/Fe/Au and Au/Co/Au Magneto-Plasmonic Multilayers as an Ethanol Vapor Sensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the sensing performance of Au/Fe/Au and Au/Co/Au magneto-plasmonic nanostructures as transducers as well as the performance of TiO2 thin film and TiO2 NPs as sensing layers. A comparison between sensing performance of the traditional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the magneto-optic (MO) SPR (MOSPR) transducing techniques is presented here. The surface plasmon wave vector in these transducers which are consisted of metallic and magnetic materials is modulated by external magnetic field in the transverse configuration. Magneto-plasmonic structures show a great enhancement of an MO Kerr effect when the SPR condition is satisfied. As such enhancement strongly depends on the excitation conditions of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and, therefore, on the refractive index of the dielectric in contact with the metal layer, we use this enhanced MO signal as the sensing magnitude for investigating molecular interactions between ethanol vapor and TiO2 nanostructures onto the transducers. Besides, when the SPP is excited, applied magnetic field would modulate the SPP wave vector. The modulated nature of MOSPR signal would lead to a higher sensing performance in terms of sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the traditional SPR signal. Moreover, our results show that using TiO2 NPs in the vicinity of multilayer transducers creates a better sensing performance which is caused by porosity and enhancement in the surface area of absorbent layer.
Autors: Mina Afsharnia;Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Flexible Arrayed pH Sensor Based on Nickel Oxide Films
Abstract:
In this paper, nickel oxide (NiO) was used as a sensing film of flexible arrayed NiO pH sensor, and its average sensitivity could be improved by introducing oxygen gas in sputtering deposition process for NiO sensing film. It had the advantage, such as portability, disposability, low cost, high flexibility, miniaturization, long-term stability for basic solution, and high sensitivity (63 mV/pH) exhibited in the pH range from pH 1 to pH 13. Moreover, the characteristics of optimal NiO sensing film were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope. The non-ideal effects of flexible arrayed NiO pH sensor were investigated, such as drift and hysteresis effects. The drift rates for pH 1, pH 7, and pH 13 were −4 mV/hr, 3 mV/hr, and 1 mV/hr, respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis voltages were within 4 mV.
Autors: Jung-Chuan Chou;Siao-Jie Yan;Yi-Hung Liao;Chih-Hsien Lai;Jian-Syun Chen;Hsiang-Yi Chen;Ting-Wei Tseng;Tong-Yu Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 605 - 612
Publisher: IEEE
 

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