Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 10

» Multiple Radar Subbands Fusion Algorithm Based on Support Vector Regression in Complex Noise Environment
Abstract:
Real noise environment may not be Gaussian due to the existence of man-made interferences, natural bursts, and so on. In this paper, a new multiple radar subbands fusion algorithm in complex noise environment is proposed. The considered complex noise includes impulsive noise and the mixture of impulsive and Gaussian noises. The proposed subband fusion algorithm consists of the following steps. First, the incoherent factors are estimated and the multiple subbands are compensated to be mutually coherent. Then, coherent subbands are fit by the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) model, where model parameters are estimated in the frame of sparse reconstruction. Different probability distribution functions are used to describe different noise environments, and the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate of scattering model parameters is achieved. It is shown that the MAP estimate can be obtained by iteratively solving a support vector regression problem. Finally, the fused full band is obtained by extrapolating the measured subband data based on the estimated GTD model. Validity and performance of the proposed algorithm are investigated by analytical data, simulated data, and static-range data.
Autors: Ying Zhang;Tingjing Wang;Huapeng Zhao;Yanxin Zhang;Hua Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 381 - 392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Scale Approach to Dynamics of an LC Circuit With a Charge-Controlled Memristor
Abstract:
This brief presents an analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a memristive inductive–capacitive circuit, driven by a sinusoidal voltage source. The analysis is carried out using multiple-scale technique. The memristance is modeled by a power law series of the electrical charge , considering both passive and active . The steady-state solution behavior, close to the resonant circuit condition, is investigated. Numerical simulations are reported for comparison with analytical results.
Autors: Kristopher J. Chandía;Mauro Bologna;Bernardo Tellini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 120 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Solutions of Transmission Line Switching in Power Systems
Abstract:
Line switching provides the flexibility for an operator to reduce the operation cost by switching some lines. However, the issue of multiple solutions in the existing models has never been explored and addressed. This will make the traditional models fail to determine the best line switching strategy in the context of multiple solutions. In this letter, we demonstrate that the multiple solution issue in line switching is very significant and propose a multi-objective optimization approach to address the multiple solutions of line switching. The simulation results on the IEEE 118-bus and IEEE 300-bus systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Xuan Liu;Yunfeng Wen;Zuyi Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1118 - 1120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Input Configuration of Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Power Flow Control in Combinational Battery Storage
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multiple-input configuration of isolated bidirectional dual active bridge dc–dc converter (MIBDC) for power flow control in combinational battery storage. It can be operated in an independent source or combinational source mode of operation to control the power transfer, with the capability of bidirectional power flow and smoother transition. The proposed configuration has the benefits of reduction in circulation power and peak current stress in an independent mode of operation, which enhances the efficiency of dual active bridge converter. It also offers a wide range of power transmission as compared to the conventional IBDC. The proposed configuration can also be used with unequal voltage level sources by connecting them in series on multi-input side. The operation and investigation of the proposed configuration are presented in detail. In addition, the strategy of power flow control with multiple-input sources is discussed. The operation of the proposed MIBDC has been verified through simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC and experimentally demonstrated using ARM LPC 2148 processor.
Autors: V. Karthikeyan;Rajesh Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 2 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiplier-Less Stream Processor for 2D Filtering in Visual Search Applications
Abstract:
A new 2D convolution-based filter is presented, which is specifically designed to improve visual search applications. It exploits a new radix-3 partitioning method of integer numbers, derived from the weight partition theory, which allows substituting multipliers with simplified floating point (FP) adders, working on 32-b FP filter coefficients. The memory organization allows elaborating the incoming data in raster scan order, as those directly provided by an acquisition source, without frame buffers and additional aligning circuitry. Compared with the existent literature, built around conventional arithmetic circuitry, the proposed design achieves state-of-the-art performances in the reduction of the mapped physical resources and elaboration velocity, achieving a critical path delay of about 4.5 ns both with a Xilinx Virtex-7 field-programmable gate array and CMOS 90-nm std_cells.
Autors: Gian Domenico Licciardo;Carmine Cappetta;Luigi Di Benedetto;Alfredo Rubino;Rosalba Liguori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 267 - 272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiresolution Search of the Rigid Motion Space for Intensity-Based Registration
Abstract:
We study the relation between the correlation-based target functions of low-resolution and high-resolution intensity-based registration for the class of rigid transformations. Our results show that low-resolution target values can tightly bound the high-resolution target function in natural images. This can help with analyzing and better understanding the process of multiresolution image registration. It also gives a guideline for designing multiresolution algorithms in which the search space in higher resolution registration is restricted given the fitness values for lower resolution image pairs. To demonstrate this, we incorporate our multiresolution technique into a Lipschitz global optimization framework. We show that using the multiresolution scheme can result in large gains in the efficiency of such algorithms. The method is evaluated by applying to the problems of 2D registration, 3D rotation search, and the detection of reflective symmetry in 2D and 3D images.
Autors: Behrooz Nasihatkon;Fredrik Kahl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 40, issue:1, pages: 179 - 191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Visualization and Scale-Adaptive Modification of DNA Nanostructures
Abstract:
We present an approach to represent DNA nanostructures in varying forms of semantic abstraction, describe ways to smoothly transition between them, and thus create a continuous multiscale visualization and interaction space for applications in DNA nanotechnology. This new way of observing, interacting with, and creating DNA nanostructures enables domain experts to approach their work in any of the semantic abstraction levels, supporting both low-level manipulations and high-level visualization and modifications. Our approach allows them to deal with the increasingly complex DNA objects that they are designing, to improve their features, and to add novel functions in a way that no existing single-scale approach offers today. For this purpose we collaborated with DNA nanotechnology experts to design a set of ten semantic scales. These scales take the DNA's chemical and structural behavior into account and depict it from atoms to the targeted architecture with increasing levels of abstraction. To create coherence between the discrete scales, we seamlessly transition between them in a well-defined manner. We use special encodings to allow experts to estimate the nanoscale object's stability. We also add scale-adaptive interactions that facilitate the intuitive modification of complex structures at multiple scales. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on an experimental use case. Moreover, feedback from our collaborating domain experts confirmed an increased time efficiency and certainty for analysis and modification tasks on complex DNA structures. Our method thus offers exciting new opportunities with promising applications in medicine and biotechnology.
Autors: Haichao Miao;Elisa De Llano;Johannes Sorger;Yasaman Ahmadi;Tadija Kekic;Tobias Isenberg;M. Eduard Gröller;Ivan Barišić;Ivan Viola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 1014 - 1024
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Coordinated Planning of Active Distribution Networks
Abstract:
This paper introduces a multistage coordinated planning method for active distribution networks (ADN). The proposed methodology optimizes, in a coordinated manner, multiple planning alternatives, i.e., reinforcement of the existing substations and distribution lines, network expansion, as well as capacitor and voltage regulator placement in conjunction with the active management of distributed generation (DG). The active management considers the control of the active and reactive power output of the DG units. The proposed multistage coordinated planning methodology aims at minimizing the net present value of the network investment cost. To handle the high complexity of the planning problem, two successive planning procedures are developed. First, the location and capacity of the multiple planning alternatives are computed incorporating the active management of DG. Afterwards, using a heuristic approach, the time period for the commissioning of the computed network investments along the planning period is defined. To validate its effectiveness and performance, the proposed method is applied to a 24-bus distribution test system and a real-world 267-bus distribution system.
Autors: Nikolaos C. Koutsoukis;Pavlos S. Georgilakis;Nikos D. Hatziargyriou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 32 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Stochastic Investment Planning With Multiscale Representation of Uncertainties and Decisions
Abstract:
We propose a multistage multiscale linear stochastic model to optimize electricity generation, storage, and transmission investments over a long planning horizon. The multiscale structure captures “large-scale” uncertainties, such as investment and fuel-cost changes and long-run demand-growth rates, and “small-scale” uncertainties, such as hour-to-hour demand and renewable-availability uncertainty. The model also includes a detailed treatment of operating periods so that the effect of dispatch decisions on long-term investments are captured. The proposed model can be large in size. The progressive hedging algorithm is applied to decompose the model by scenario, greatly reducing computation times. We also derive bounds on the optimal objective-function value, to assess solution quality. We use a case study based on the state of Texas to demonstrate the model and show the benefits of its detailed representation of the operating periods in making investment decisions.
Autors: Yixian Liu;Ramteen Sioshansi;Antonio J. Conejo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 781 - 791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Coupling Between Submicrostrip Grid Arrays on Electrically Thin Substrate
Abstract:
This communication presents a study of mutual coupling between submicrostrip grid arrays on electrically thin substrate. It is found that the mutual coupling between subgrid arrays on electronically thin substrate is mainly caused by dielectric polarization currents. High isolation between subgrid arrays can be achieved by proper selection of the antenna array factor and size. A particular example of microstrip grid array antenna with five subarrays is developed on RT/duroid 5880 substrate for simultaneous transmit and receive application with high measured isolation of 65.07 dB at 24.15 GHz between transmitting and receiving antennas.
Autors: Zihao Chen;Yue Ping Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 467 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MV-FTL: An FTL That Provides Page-Level Multi-Version Management
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose MV-FTL, a multi-version flash transition layer (FTL) that provides page-level multi-version management. By extending a unique characteristic of solid-state drives (SSDs), the out-of-place (OoP) update to multi-version management, MV-FTL can both guarantee atomic page updates from each transaction and provide concurrency without requiring redundant log data writes as well. For evaluation, we first modified SQLite, a lightweight database management system (DBMS), to cooperate with MV-FTL. Owing to the architectural simplicity of SQLite, we clearly show that MV-FTL improves both the performance and the concurrency aspects of the system. In addition, to prove the effectiveness in a full-fledged enterprise-level DBMS, we modified MyRocks, a MySQL variant by Facebook, to use our new Patch Compaction algorithm, which deeply relies on MV-FTL. The TPC-C and LinkBench benchmark tests demonstrated that MV-FTL reduces the overall amount of writes, implying that MV-FTL can be effective in such DBMSs.
Autors: Doogie Lee;Mincheol Shin;Wongi Choi;Hongchan Roh;Sanghyun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 87 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MyBrush: Brushing and Linking with Personal Agency
Abstract:
We extend the popular brushing and linking technique by incorporating personal agency in the interaction. We map existing research related to brushing and linking into a design space that deconstructs the interaction technique into three components: source (what is being brushed), link (the expression of relationship between source and target), and target (what is revealed as related to the source). Using this design space, we created MyBrush, a unified interface that offers personal agency over brushing and linking by giving people the flexibility to configure the source, link, and target of multiple brushes. The results of three focus groups demonstrate that people with different backgrounds leveraged personal agency in different ways, including performing complex tasks and showing links explicitly. We reflect on these results, paving the way for future research on the role of personal agency in information visualization.
Autors: Philipp Koytek;Charles Perin;Jo Vermeulen;Elisabeth André;Sheelagh Carpendale;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 605 - 615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrow-Linewidth 780-nm DFB Lasers Fabricated Using Nanoimprint Lithography
Abstract:
This letter presents narrow-linewidth 780-nm edge-emitting semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated without re-growth using UV-nanoimprinted surface gratings. The third-order laterally coupled ridge-waveguide surface gratings enable single mode operation, excellent spectral purity (40–55 dB side mode suppression ratio and 10-kHz linewidth), and good light–current–voltage characteristics in continuous wave operation (~112-mA threshold current, ~1.55-V opening voltage, and 28.9-mW output power from one facet at 300-mA current for 2.4-mm-long devices), which are vital in various applications, such as rubidium spectroscopy and atomic clock pumping. The low fabrication cost, high throughput, structural flexibility, and high device yield make the fabrication method fully compatible with large-scale mass production, enabling the fabrication of low-cost miniaturized modules.
Autors: Heikki Virtanen;Topi Uusitalo;Maija Karjalainen;Sanna Ranta;Jukka Viheriälä;Mihail Dumitrescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 51 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrowband and Wideband Off-Grid Direction-of-Arrival Estimation via Sparse Bayesian Learning
Abstract:
The sparse Bayesian learning based relevance vector machine (SBLRVM) algorithm is a promising algorithm to estimate the directions-of-arrival (DOAs) of multiple narrowband signals. The parameters involved in the DOA estimation model are automatically estimated by the algorithm that makes it more attractive than the deterministic sparsity based DOA estimation algorithms in which fine-tuning of parameters is necessary. However, one limitation of the algorithm is that it assumes the DOAs of the signals to be exactly aligned with the angular grids, which may not be true in practice. In this paper, we first propose an off-grid version of the narrowband SBLRVM algorithm. Next, we propose an off-grid wideband SBLRVM algorithm. The algorithms assume that the true scenario DOAs of the signals are not exactly aligned with the angular grids and the parameters of the algorithms are automatically estimated by the expectation maximization approach. In the wideband DOA estimation algorithm, we estimate one spatial power spectrum by simultaneously exploiting sparsity from all frequency bins. We demonstrate the application of the proposed algorithms by analyzing data from the shallow water HF ocean acoustic experiment. The estimated DOAs of a narrowband tonal from the experiment by using our proposed narrowband DOA estimation algorithm are consistent with the nonadaptive conventional beamformer. Processing a wideband chirp from the experiment shows that estimating one spatial power spectrum by simultaneously exploiting sparsity from all frequency bins using the proposed wideband DOA estimation algorithm is a more valuable processor than an incoherent combination of the power spectra from the individual frequency bins estimated using the proposed narrowband DOA estimation algorithm. Moreover, since our proposed algorithms are off-grid algorithms, an empirical analysis for the choice of the discreti- ation interval of the angular spread is not required as opposed to the on-grid DOA estimation algorithms. This results in a reduced computational complexity.
Autors: Anup Das;Terrence J. Sejnowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 108 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nature of Sideband Generation
Abstract:
The serious investigation of sidebands (SBs), which are the result of nonlinear processes, began in the late 19th century when research was being conducted on amplitude modulation (Panter, 1965). In 1875, A.M. Mayer experimentally proved the existence of SBs. In 1886, M. Leblanc was likely the first to amplitude modulate a carrier signal with speech. Later, in 1894, Lord Rayleigh theoretically demonstrated the existence of SBs.
Autors: Don E. Czyzyk;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near MAP Dynamical Delay Estimator and Bayesian CRB for Coded QAM Signals
Abstract:
This paper presents an off-line algorithm for dynamical time delay recovery for which the whole observation block is used. The time offset varies over the observation interval following a random walk model. The proposed synchronizer applies to data-aided (DA), non-data-aided (NDA), and code-aided (CA) modes. Theoretical performance of the off-line technique is derived and compared with simulation results. The Bayesian Cramer-Rao Bound (BCRB) is also evaluated for DA, NDA, and CA modes and for both the off-line and on-line scenarios. Simulation results show the improvement brought by the off-line and the CA schemes. The presented algorithm outperforms the conventional on-line estimator, which only considers the current and previous observations, and its mean square error approaches the BCRB.
Autors: Imen Nasr;Leïla Najjar Atallah;Sofiane Cherif;Benoît Geller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 636 - 651
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Field Inductive-Coupling Link to Power a Three-Dimensional Millimeter-Size Antenna for Brain Implantable Medical Devices
Abstract:
Objective: Near-field inductive-coupling link can establish a reliable power source to a batteryless implantable medical device based on Faraday's law of induction. Methods: In this paper, the design, modeling, and experimental verification of an inductive-coupling link between an off-body loop antenna and a 0.9  three-dimensional (3-D) bowtie brain implantable antenna is presented. To ensure reliability of the design, the implantable antenna is embedded in the cerebral spinal fluid of a realistic human head model. Exposure, temperature, and propagation simulations of the near electromagnetic fields in a frequency-dispersive head model were carried out to comply with the IEEE safety standards. Concertedly, a fabrication process for the implantable antenna is proposed, which can be extended to devise and miniaturize different 3-D geometric shapes. Results: The performance of the proposed inductive link was tested in a biological environment; in vitro measurements of the fabricated prototypes were carried in a pig's head and piglet. The measurements of the link gain demonstrated   in the pig's head and   in piglet. Significance: The in vitro measurement results showed that the proposed 3-D implantable antenna is suitable for integration with a miniaturized batteryless brain implantable med- cal device (BIMD).
Autors: Mohamed Manoufali;Konstanty Bialkowski;Beadaa Jasem Mohammed;Paul C. Mills;Amin Abbosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 4 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Memory Acceleration for Radio Astronomy
Abstract:
Processing-in-memory and near-memory computing have recently been rediscovered as a way to alleviate the “memory wall problem” of traditional computing architectures. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of a 3D-stacked near-memory accelerator, targeting radio astronomy and scientific applications. After exploring the design space of the architecture by focusing on minimizing the execution power of the processing pipeline of the SKA1-Low central signal processor, we show that our accelerator can achieve an energy efficiency of up to 390 GFLOPS/W, corresponding to an energy consumption one order of magnitude lower than alternative state-of-the-art implementations. When running additional mathematical and streaming-oriented kernels, our accelerator achieves from 6.4 to 20 energy efficiency improvement compared to alternative solutions.
Autors: Leandro Fiorin;Rik Jongerius;Erik Vermij;Jan van Lunteren;Christoph Hagleitner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 29, issue:1, pages: 115 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Necessary Condition-Based Detector for Generalized Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a low-complexity detection algorithm for generalized space shift keying MIMO systems. First, the maximum likelihood detection is posed as a binary quadratic programming (BQP) problem. Then, we derive an optimal decision rule based on the necessary global optimality condition of BQP. Using this rule, most entries of solution can be determined optimally with only per-bit complexity. Furthermore, taking advantage of the determined entries, the original programming can be reduced to a smaller-scale one only including the undetermined entries. Finally, we can use some conventional detectors to solve the remained small-scale problem with a lower complexity. Simulation results substantiate the performance of the proposed detector.
Autors: Wenlong Liu;Yuanlong Gao;Ziyi Gu;Minglu Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 53 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Differential Resistance and Steep Switching in Chevron Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
We show that recently fabricated Chevron-type graphene nanoribbons act as a monolithic superlattice structure. This is enabled by the large periodic unit cells with regions of different effective bandgaps in these nanoribbons, resulting in minibands and gaps in the density of states above the conduction band edge. Quantum transport calculations based on non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism reveal that a negative differential resistance (NDR) is expected to manifest in these nanoribbons. Due to the relatively low density of states, such NDR behavior can also be modulated with a gate electric field. We show that a sub-thermal subthreshold swing () can potentially be obtained in a three-terminal configuration, even in the presence of optical phonon scattering.
Autors: Samuel Smith;Juan-Pablo Llinás;Jeffrey Bokor;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 143 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negotiated Decentralized Aircraft Conflict Resolution
Abstract:
This paper describes a sequential bargaining process that provides negotiated, decentralized aircraft conflict resolution. This process is decentralized in that it allows each aircraft to propose its own trajectories and assess their cost using its own private information. At each stage in the process, aircraft broadcast to each other proposed trajectories and then identify the response trajectories they would need to fly to avoid a conflict with the other’s proposed trajectories. If the cost of any response trajectory is less than or equal to its corresponding proposed trajectory, then a resolution has been found; otherwise, the process iterates with the requirement that the next set of proposed trajectories incur greater portions of the cost of resolving the conflict. Convergence of the process and methods for describing constraints on the trajectories is examined in computational experiments. Finally, the process is demonstrated in a large-scale simulation spanning an en route air traffic control center’s operations for five hours.
Autors: Amy R. Pritchett;Antoine Genton;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 81 - 91
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New CO2 Concentration Predictions and Spectral Estimation Applied to the Vostok Ice Core
Abstract:
The Vostok ice core provides measurements of the CO2 concentration during the last years (yr). Estimations of power spectra show peaks, with the strongest one corresponding to a time period of around yr. In this paper, a new reconstruction method from irregular sampling is used, allowing more accurate estimation of spectral peaks. This method intrinsically decomposes the analyzed signal as a sum of sines, providing amplitudes but also phase measurements of periodic tendencies (due to the nature of the studied phenomena). This decomposition can be conducted with noisy and inaccurate measurements of the sampling instants and the concentrations. The widely used Vostok data were chosen as an example, but the method could also be applied to data from other places (e.g., dome C, Antarctica) or to study other phenomena as nitrogen dioxide NO2, methane CH4, oxygen isotope 18O (closely linked to temperature), deuterium 2H, or dust concentrations.
Autors: David Bonacci;Bernard Lacaze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 145 - 151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Heights for Satellites: LTCC Multilayer Technology for Future Satellites
Abstract:
Over the past few years, the demands on satellite communication have undergone significant changes, and, as a consequence, its technologies and system designs are also changing in important ways. Since the introduction of high-definition television, classical geostationary (GEO) satellites in orbit at 36,800 km must transmit higher data rates. Also, GEO satellites are increasingly used for global data transfer, e.g., for Internet applications and business communication. As a consequence, higher-frequency bandwidth, higher transmitting frequencies in the millimeter-wave range, and efficient frequency reuse are needed [1].
Autors: Ingo Wolff;Carsten Günner;Jürgen Kassner;Reinhard Kulke;Peter Uhlig;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 36 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Receding Horizon FIR Estimator for Blind Smart Sensing of Velocity via Position Measurements
Abstract:
Smart sensors often require that embedded estimators are robust and blind for given averaging horizons. This brief proposes a new receding horizon (RH) finite impulse response (FIR) velocity estimator that fits these needs by utilizing data from recent discrete position measurements with fading weights. The conventional Kalman estimator typically exhibits poor performance and may even diverge under imprecisely defined noise statistics and/or numerical errors. In contrast, the proposed weighted RH FIR estimator does not require any information about noise, which makes it more robust and blind for a given . The weighted RH FIR estimator minimizes the effects of uncertainties caused by imprecisely defined noise statistics and/or numerical errors and demonstrates better robustness than the existing FIR estimators. We also discuss how to choose the optimal horizon size for the weighted RH FIR estimator. The better performance of the proposed weighted RH FIR estimator against the Kalman and FIR estimators is shown through simulations under diverse operation conditions.
Autors: Choon Ki Ahn;Yuriy S. Shmaliy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 135 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Stability Criteria of Delayed Load Frequency Control Systems via Infinite-Series-Based Inequality
Abstract:
A new approach is proposed for the stability problem of delayed load frequency control (LFC) scheme with fixed and time-varying delay cases included in the current paper. New stability criteria with delay dependence in terms of linear matrix inequalities for LFC systems are derived by a novel augmented Lyapunov–Krasovski (L–K) functional. Our proof deployment for system stability of power grids employs the further improved integral inequality in the form of infinite series, which turns out to be less conservative than Wirtinger's inequality that encompasses Jensen inequality. Simulation case studies are carried out to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented delay-dependent PI-type LFC design scheme.
Autors: Feisheng Yang;Jing He;Dianhui Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 231 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Structural Design of Gated Lateral Bipolar Junction Transistor for Sensor Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a gated lateral bipolar junction transistor (GLBJT) that has a cascade structure, resulting in improved sensing performance over conventional GLBJTs. The device can be operated in bipolar junction transistor (BJT) mode, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) mode, and a hybrid MOSFET-BJT mode under input bias control. The device exhibits higher transconductance than that of conventional GLBJTs owing to the cascade structure using pMOSFET. The cascade effect generated in the proposed device is shown to increase the transconductance, and the results from two experiments [pH response and C-reactive protein (CRP)-antigen detection] demonstrate that the sensitivity of the proposed sensor exceeds that of conventional GLBJTs. The proposed device offers approximately 2.5 times that the sensitivity of conventional GLBJTs in the pH and CRP-antigen detection experiments. These results confirm that the proposed device has enhanced sensitivity and suggests the possibility of realizing more efficient sensors with better sensitivity than that of conventional GLBJTs.
Autors: Hyun-Min Jeong;Jin-Beom Kwon;Hyurk-Choon Kwon;Ju-Seong Kim;Binrui Xu;Dae-Hyuk Kwon;Shin-Won Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 243 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Verification Strategy for Finger-Vein Recognition System
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new finger-vein recognition system that uses a binary robust invariant elementary feature from accelerated segment test feature points and an adaptive thresholding strategy. Subsequently, the proposed a multi-image quality assessments (MQA) are applied to conduct a second stage verification. As oppose to other studies, the region of interest is directly identified using a range of normalized feature point area, which reduces the complexity of pre-processing. This recognition structure allows an efficient feature points matching using a robust feature and rigorous verification using the MQA process. As a result, this method not only reduces the system computation time, comparisons against former relevant studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.
Autors: Chih-Hsien Hsia;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 790 - 797
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Year Editorial
Abstract:
Dear TCAS-I Readers, Happy 2018! As I start my second two-year term (2018–19) as the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers (TCAS-I), I am excited by the opportunities that lie ahead and look forward to working with all of you. I am writing to give you an update on the status of TCAS-I and future plans.
Autors: Andreas Demosthenous;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 1 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Year Message From the Editor-in-Chief
Abstract:
Autors: Bin He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Newton–Raphson Solver for Finite Element Methods Featuring Nonlinear Hysteresis Models
Abstract:
It is well known that the Newton–Raphson method is the most popular iterative method for nonlinear finite element problems. The method has a quadratic convergence. Under certain conditions on the Jacobian of the functional and the initial guess the Newton–Raphson method can converge very fast. However, standard evaluation of such Jacobian may not be possible for the solution of nonlinear hysteresis field problems. This is due to the nature of the magnetization curves that may not be differentiable or possess a very steep gradient. In this paper, an alternative finite element implementation using the Newton–Raphson method for hysteresis field problems is described in detail. To improve the convergence of the method, a method for evaluation of the initial guess is also proposed. It is shown that the Newton method can be reliably used for solving hysteresis field problems.
Autors: Abdoulkadri Chama;Stiaan Gerber;Rong-Jie Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Background Levels and Noise Event Tracking/Characterization Under the Arctic Ice Pack: Experiment, Data Analysis, and Modeling
Abstract:
In March 2014, an Arctic Line Arrays System (ALAS) was deployed as part of an experiment in the Beaufort Sea (approximate location 72.323 N, 146.490 W). The water depth was greater than 3500 m. The background noise levels in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 25 kHz were measured. The goal was to have a three-dimensional sparse array that would allow determination of the direction of sound sources out to hundreds of kilometers and both direction and range of sound sources out to 1–2 km from the center of the array. ALAS started recording data at 02:12 on March 10, 2014 (UTC). It recorded data nearly continuously at a sample rate of 50 kHz until 11:04 on March 24, 2014. Background noise spectral levels are presented for low and high floe-drift conditions. Tracking/characterization results for ice-cracking events (with signatures typically in the 10–2000-Hz band), including the initiation of an open lead within about 400 m of the array, and one seismic event (with a signature in the 1–40-Hz band) are presented. Results from simple modeling indicate that the signature of a lead formation may be a combination of both previously hypothesized physics and enhanced emissions near the ice plate critical frequency (where the flexural wave speed equals that of the water sound speed). For the seismic event, the T-wave arrival time results indicate that a significant amount of energy coupled to T-wave energy somewhere along the path between the earthquake and ALAS.
Autors: Kevin L. Williams;Michael L. Boyd;Alexander G. Soloway;Eric I. Thorsos;Steven G. Kargl;Robert I. Odom;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 145 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Limits in Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Sensors With Magnetic Frequency Conversion
Abstract:
To enable the measurement of low-frequency magnetic signals with cantilever type thin-film magnetoelectric sensors, magnetic frequency conversion transfers the frequency of the desired signal into the mechanical resonance of the cantilever. The system electronics for the realization of this approach and the approach itself introduce additional noise sources as compared with direct detection, which lowers the limit of detection. In this paper, the magnetic frequency conversion noise sources are reviewed, discussed, and evaluated for our setup. The model for the nonlinear transfer process is implemented in the time domain. This enables the consideration of the pump noise in a noise equivalent circuit. For the sensor type under investigation, the dominant noise near its optimal working point originates from the pump source. If the noise of the pump can be decreased and magnetic excess noise is not dominant, the noise limit is the thermal-mechanical noise of the sensor. The implementation of a filter after the excitation source decreases the limit of detection to 60 pT/ at 10 Hz.
Autors: Sebastian Salzer;Volker Röbisch;Matic Klug;Phillip Durdaut;Jeffrey McCord;Dirk Meyners;Jens Reermann;Michael Höft;Reinhard Knöchel;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 596 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Convex Phase Retrieval From STFT Measurements
Abstract:
The problem of recovering a one-dimensional signal from its Fourier transform magnitude, called Fourier phase retrieval, is ill-posed in most cases. We consider the closely-related problem of recovering a signal from its phaseless short-time Fourier transform (STFT) measurements. This problem arises naturally in several applications, such as ultra-short laser pulse characterization and ptychography. The redundancy offered by the STFT enables unique recovery under mild conditions. We show that in some cases the unique solution can be obtained by the principal eigenvector of a matrix, constructed as the solution of a simple least-squares problem. When these conditions are not met, we suggest using the principal eigenvector of this matrix to initialize non-convex local optimization algorithms and propose two such methods. The first is based on minimizing the empirical risk loss function, while the second maximizes a quadratic function on the manifold of phases. We prove that under appropriate conditions, the proposed initialization is close to the underlying signal. We then analyze the geometry of the empirical risk loss function and show numerically that both gradient algorithms converge to the underlying signal even with small redundancy in the measurements. In addition, the algorithms are robust to noise.
Autors: Tamir Bendory;Yonina C. Eldar;Nicolas Boumal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 467 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Invasive Identification of Inertia Distribution Change in High Renewable Systems Using Distribution Level PMU
Abstract:
This letter proposed an approach to identify the change of inertia distribution in high renewable power systems. Using the footprints of electromechanical wave propagation at the distribution level, this approach provides a new and non-invasive way to aware the system inertia distribution for primary frequency response. Actual measurements and high renewable dynamic models validated effectiveness of the approach.
Autors: Shutang You;Yong Liu;Gefei Kou;Xuemeng Zhang;Wenxuan Yao;Yu Su;Stanton W. Hadley;Yilu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1110 - 1112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Model-Based Control of a Wheeled Vehicle Pulling Two Trailers to Provide Early Powered Mobility and Driving Experiences
Abstract:
Non-model-based control of a wheeled vehicle pulling two trailers is proposed. It is a fun train for disabled children consisting of a locomotive and two carriages. The fun train has afforded opportunities for both disabled and able bodied young people to share an activity and has provided early driving experiences for disabled children; it has introduced them to assistive and powered mobility. The train is a nonlinear system and subject to nonholonomic kinematic constraints, so that position and state depend on the path taken to get there. The train is described, and then, a robust control algorithm using proportional–derivative filtered errors is proposed to control the locomotive. The controller was not dependent on an accurate model of the train, because the mass of the vehicle and two carriages changed depending on the number, size, and shape of children and wheelchair seats on the train. The controller was robust and stable in uncertainty. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach, and the suggested control algorithm is shown to be acceptable without knowing the exact plant dynamics.
Autors: David A. Sanders TD VR;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 96 - 104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Overlapping Subsequence Matching of Stream Synopses
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose SUbsequence Matching framework with cell MERgence (SUMMER) for online subsequence matching between histogram-based stream synopsis structures under the dynamic time warping distance. Given a query synopsis pattern, SUMMER continuously identifies all the matching subsequences for a stream as the bins are generated. To effectively reduce the computation time, we design a Weighted Dynamic Time Warping (WDTW) algorithm, which computes the warping distance directly between two histogram-based synopses. Furthermore, a Stack-based Overlapping Filter Algorithm (SOFA) is provided to remove the overlapping subsequences to avoid the redundant information. Finally, we design an optional refinement module to relax the subsequence range limit and improve the matching accuracy. Our experiments on real datasets show that the proposed method significantly speeds up the pattern matching without compromising the accuracy required when compared with other approaches.
Autors: Su-Chen Lin;Mi-Yen Yeh;Ming-Syan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 101 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Rigid Contour-Based Registration of Cell Nuclei in 2-D Live Cell Microscopy Images Using a Dynamic Elasticity Model
Abstract:
The analysis of the pure motion of subnuclear structures without influence of the cell nucleus motion and deformation is essential in live cell imaging. In this paper, we propose a 2-D contour-based image registration approach for compensation of nucleus motion and deformation in fluorescence microscopy time-lapse sequences. The proposed approach extends our previous approach, which uses a static elasticity model to register cell images. Compared with that scheme, the new approach employs a dynamic elasticity model for the forward simulation of nucleus motion and deformation based on the motion of its contours. The contour matching process is embedded as a constraint into the system of equations describing the elastic behavior of the nucleus. This results in better performance in terms of the registration accuracy. Our approach was successfully applied to real live cell microscopy image sequences of different types of cells including image data that was specifically designed and acquired for evaluation of cell image registration methods. An experimental comparison with the existing contour-based registration methods and an intensity-based registration method has been performed. We also studied the dependence of the results on the choice of method parameters.
Autors: Dmitry V. Sorokin;Igor Peterlik;Marco Tektonidis;Karl Rohr;Pavel Matula;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 173 - 184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoherent OFDM-IM and Its Performance Analysis
Abstract:
In conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with index modulation (OFDM-IM), the active subcarriers can convey information bits by modulated symbols as well as their indices. To detect modulated symbols, coherent detection is usually considered, which requires the channel state information (CSI) estimation for all subcarriers at a receiver. In OFDM-IM, however, since only a fraction of subcarriers are active, the overhead for pilot transmissions through all subcarriers to allow the receiver to estimate the CSI could be excessive, in particular, under a fast fading environment. To avoid this difficulty, we consider noncoherent OFDM-IM, where only the indices of active subcarriers are used to convey information bits. For a better performance, a transmit diversity scheme is also studied. We derive a closed-form expression for the probability of index error when no transmit diversity is considered under frequency-selective Rayleigh fading. We also derive an upper-bound when the transmit diversity scheme is employed. From the upper-bound, the diversity order is also clearly shown.
Autors: Jinho Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 352 - 360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncooperative Game-Based Distributed Charging Control for Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Distribution Networks
Abstract:
Increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has a substantial impact on the operation of power distribution networks. Given the fast-growing load demands from PEVs and unmatched infrastructure investment in transformer and feeder capacity, the PEV charging is subjected to both spatially and temporally security constraints beyond which the network failure may occur. This paper proposes a game-theory-based distributed charging control method to coordinate large-scale PEVs without compromising the security of the distribution network. Under a noncooperative game framework, a price-driven charging model is designed to minimize the cost of each individual PEV customer while satisfying the network loading constraints. Then, a Newton-type method is developed to find a better Nash equilibrium of the game model at a superlinear convergence rate. Furthermore, an accelerated gradient method is proposed to tackle the subproblem for each user's best response. The update of the user's best response is implemented in a distributed way in order to protect user's privacy. The convergence rate of the proposed algorithms is rigorously proved. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested on the IEEE 13-bus system.
Autors: Jueyou Li;Chaojie Li;Yan Xu;Zhao Yang Dong;Kit Po Wong;Tingwen Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 301 - 310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlane-Discipline-Based Car-Following Model for Electric Vehicles in Transportation- Cyber-Physical Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new car-following (CF) model incorporating the effects of lateral gap and roadside device communication to capture the characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) traffic stream in transportation-cyber-physical systems. Stability of the proposed CF model is analyzed using the perturbation method. Furthermore, the energy consumption of the EV traffic stream is investigated based on the drive cycles produced by the proposed model. Numerical experiments analyze three scenarios: start, stop, and evolution processes for the scenarios of no lateral gap, lateral gap, and lateral gap with roadside device, respectively. Results demonstrate that: 1) the nonlane-discipline-based model is more responsive than the lane-discipline-based model; 2) the nonlane-discipline-based model for the EV traffic stream consumes more energy in the acceleration phase and recuperates more energy in the deceleration phase compared with the lane-discipline-based model; and 3) the nonlane-discipline-based model with roadside device communication for EV traffic stream consumes more energy in the acceleration phase and recuperates more energy in the deceleration phase than the model without roadside devices.
Autors: Yongfu Li;Li Zhang;Hong Zheng;Xiaozheng He;Srinivas Peeta;Taixiong Zheng;Yinguo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 38 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Dot Plots
Abstract:
Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.
Autors: Nils Rodrigues;Daniel Weiskopf;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 616 - 625
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Equivalent Magnetic Network of a Linear Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine With End Effect Consideration
Abstract:
A nonlinear equivalent magnetic network (EMN) model is proposed for a linear permanent magnet vernier (LPMV) machine. The meshing method is employed to solve the problem of the modeling of complex flux paths in stator teeth tips. Especially, an end-region model based on the electromagnetic principle is developed to consider the longitudinal end effect of the LPMV machine. The key contribution of this paper is to present a faster and simpler approach to separate the detent force (end force component and cogging force component) than finite-element analysis (FEA). Besides, taking the iron saturation and air-gap flux leakage into account, the proposed model is used to predict the electromagnetic performances of the LPMV machine, such as air-gap flux density, back-electromotive force, cogging force, and thrust force. Finally, through comparisons among the FEA simulations, experimental measurements and EMN analyses, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified.
Autors: Guohai Liu;Ling Ding;Wenxiang Zhao;Qian Chen;Shan Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlocal Filtering Applied to 3-D Reconstruction of Tomographic SAR Data
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce two spatially adaptive filtering methods to improve the estimation of the covariance matrix (CM), which is required for the processing of tomographic SAR data. We evaluate their effect on scatterer separation and height estimation. We propose several criteria to evaluate such methods and introduce a spatial simulation procedure allowing generating a tomographic image stack from a 3-D building model, assuming a multitrack airborne configuration and a distributed target model incorporating multidimensional speckle. Inversion of such a model requires the estimation of a CM from the data. Consequently, we propose two nonlocal methods to improve the estimation of the CM. The first one was previously introduced for polarimetric data and uses pixel similarities based on Riemannian distances between CMs. The second one is a new method extending the previous one to similarities between patches. We show the importance of spatial adaptivity in covariance estimation by comparing the 3-D reconstructions obtained with our filters and other methods. Further experiments on simulated and L-band experimental data show the ability of the nonlocal filters to improve the height estimation and scatterer separation in layover areas thanks to their smoothing and edge-preserving properties.
Autors: Olivier D’Hondt;Carlos López-Martínez;Stéphane Guillaso;Olaf Hellwich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 272 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonparametric Prediction Intervals of Wind Power via Linear Programming
Abstract:
This letter proposes a machine learning-based linear programming model that quickly establishes the nonparametric prediction intervals of wind power by integrating extreme learning machine and quantile regression. The proportions of quantiles can be adaptively determined via sensitivity analysis. The proposed method has been proven to be significantly efficient and reliable, with a high application potential in power systems.
Autors: Can Wan;Jianhui Wang;Jin Lin;Yonghua Song;Zhao Yang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1074 - 1076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonuniform Line Generator for High-Power RF Applications
Abstract:
Line generators were attractive structures for high-power radio frequency (RF) pulse generation for two decades. Due to some disadvantages, there has been little attention to this type of generator for a relatively long time. In this paper, a nonuniform line generator is used which resolves some of the main shortcomings of conventional line generators. The considered generator can generate RF pulses at higher frequencies with considerably higher repetition rates. Furthermore, the implementation of nonuniform line generators is significantly easier than that of their conventional counterparts. Measurement results for three nonuniform line generators are presented. The possibility of generating ~10 s MW RF powers with ~100 s MHz central frequencies at ~1-kHz repetition rates is discussed. It is shown that the used technique in this paper can be a serious rival to lumped element nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs).
Autors: Mohammad Samizadeh Nikoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 64 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Normalized Scalar Product Approach for Nearshore Bathymetric Estimation From X-Band Radar Images: An Assessment Based on Simulated and Measured Data
Abstract:
This paper investigates the capability of X-band radar systems to estimate nearshore bathymetry fields by considering both simulated and measured radar data. For the first time, a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how sea-state conditions affect bathymetric estimates. For this purpose, sea wave fields generated by means of a numerical model, based on a nonlinear shallow-water equation solver, are used. Starting from the synthetic radar data, which represent the input of the bathymetric estimation algorithm, the bathymetric reconstruction is performed through the normalized scalar product (NSP) estimation strategy, exploiting a spatial partitioning of the radar data. In this way, it is possible to improve the accuracy of the estimates in nearshore areas, where the space-varying behavior of the sea depth and the presence of coastlines or coastal structures typically leads to a spatial inhomogeneity of the wave motion. In this regard, it is shown how the choice of the partitioning settings affects the bathymetric estimates obtained from high-resolution X-band radar images by using the NSP strategy. In addition, an adaptive partitioning strategy that takes into account the wave evolution in nearshore shallow waters is devised. Based on both simulated and measured radar data, the accuracy of the bathymetric estimates achievable through the proposed adaptive partitioning process and that obtained by exploiting the approach using uniform spatial partitioning are compared. The results obtained confirm the robustness of the NSP technique with respect to sea conditions and, moreover, demonstrate that the proposed adaptive partitioning strategy provides more accurate bathymetric estimates than those obtained with the space-invariant partitioning procedure.
Autors: Giovanni Ludeno;Matteo Postacchini;Antonio Natale;Maurizio Brocchini;Claudio Lugni;Francesco Soldovieri;Francesco Serafino;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 221 - 237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Adaptive Multi-Clustering Algorithm-Based Optimal ESS Sizing in Ship Power System Considering Uncertainty
Abstract:
The optimal sizing of an energy storage system (ESS) in a power generation system that incorporates photovoltaic (PV) generation is crucial in a power grid for which the reduction of CO2 emissions is important. This problem is particularly challenging when it relates to the power system of a ship because it involves uncertain meteorological and load data along a navigation route. This paper proposes a novel method for multi-objective minimization of investment/replacement cost, fuel cost, and CO2 emissions, to find the optimal size of the ESS considering life-span of the ESS. The generation of power by PV modules on a ship is affected by temporal and geographical variations of irradiation along the navigation route. In particular, operating load conditions and irradiation are uncertain. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for partitioning high-dimensional uncertain data into tractable clusters solved by deterministic optimization method. Case studies of an all-electric ship along a route from Dalian in China to Aden in Yemen are shown to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed clustering-based stochastic optimization method.
Autors: Chi Yao;Minyou Chen;Ying-Yi Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 307 - 316
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Design for a Rectenna to Collect Pulse Waves at 2.4 GHz
Abstract:
A novel rectifying circuit topology is proposed for converting electromagnetic pulse waves (PWs), that are collected by a wideband antenna, into dc voltage. The typical incident signal considered in this paper consists of 10-ns pulses modulated around 2.4 GHz with a repetition period of 100 ns. The proposed rectifying circuit topology comprises a double-current architecture with inductances that collect the energy during the pulse delivery as well as an output capacitance that maintains the dc output voltage between the pulses. Experimental results show that the efficiency of the rectifier reaches 64% for a mean available incident power of 4 dBm. Similar performances are achieved when a wideband antenna is combined with the rectifier in order to realize a rectenna. By increasing the repetition period of the incident PWs to 400 ns, the rectifier still operates with an efficiency of 52% for a mean available incident pulse power of −8 dBm. Finally, the proposed PW rectenna is tested for a wireless energy transmission application in a low- cavity. The time reversal technique is applied to focus PWs around the desired rectenna. Results show that the rectenna is still efficient when noisy PW is handled.
Autors: Rony Ibrahim;Damien Voyer;Mohamad El Zoghbi;Julien Huillery;Arnaud Bréard;Christian Vollaire;Bruno Allard;Youssef Zaatar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 357 - 365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel EKF-Based Vision/Inertial System Integration for Improved Navigation
Abstract:
With advances in computing power, stereo vision has become an essential part of navigation applications. However, there may be instances wherein insufficient image data precludes the estimation of navigation parameters. Earlier, a novel vision-based velocity estimation method was developed by the authors, which suffered from the aforementioned drawback. In this paper, the vision-based navigation method has been integrated with a unique low-cost reduced inertial sensor system to bridge the navigation gap using one gyroscope and two accelerometers along with the inputs from wheel speed sensors. The integrated system is based on the extended Kalman filter and was tested on three trajectories with the introduction of vision data gaps. The system showed promising results for autonomous land vehicle applications.
Autors: Tashfeen B. Karamat;Romulo Gonçalves Lins;Sidney N. Givigi;Aboelmagd Noureldin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 116 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Inductive Wireless Power Transfer Uplink Utilizing Rectifier Third-Order Nonlinearity
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new approach for inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) tag-to-reader communication. A new technique to achieve transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) frequency separation is demonstrated. A two-tone Tx is adopted at the reader, and the third-order intermodulation (IM3) frequency generated by the tag rectifier nonlinearity is used as the Rx carrier, which is modulated by a baseband signal sent by the tag. The uplink signal at the IM3 frequency can be picked up by the reader coil. The IWPT impedance matching networks for both the reader and the tag coil can be reused efficiently, since the IM3 frequency at 5.06 GHz is close to the Tx fundamental frequencies at 4.94 and 5 GHz. Due to the Tx/Rx frequency separation, the Tx-to-Rx leakage at the Rx frequency can be suppressed by external filters to improve the Rx signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The proposed technique is implemented within a 5-GHz IWPT system, and a tiny CMOS tag with a coil size of only 0.01 mm2 is used. This paper also implements conventional direct and intermediate frequency-based backscattering uplinks for comparison, and the proposed IM3 uplink is able to improve the Rx SNR by more than 20 dB. The achieved uplink data rate (100 kb/s) is also higher than the published work (20 kb/s) that adopted the conventional backscattering method.
Autors: Nai-Chung Kuo;Bo Zhao;Ali M. Niknejad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 319 - 331
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Multi-Step Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Framework Based on Chaotic Time Series Analysis and Singular Spectrum Analysis
Abstract:
Decomposition methods are widely applied as a prestage of wind power prediction (WPP) to reduce the prediction errors caused by the nonstationarity and nonlinearity of wind power time series (TS); however, they cannot address the issues posed by the chaotic behavior of wind power TS. This paper, therefore, proposes a novel decomposition approach to take the chaotic nature of wind power TS into account and to improve WPP accuracy. In this decomposition approach, as a primary step, the wind power TS is separated into several components with different time-frequency characteristics (scales) by means of ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Chaotic TS analysis is then applied to determine which components are chaotic, and then singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is applied thereto. This multi-scale SSA (MSSSA) can maintain the general trend of chaotic components, which become smoother by eliminating extremely rapid changes with low amplitudes, and thus several steps ahead WPP with higher accuracy can be realized. Following the proposed decomposition, a novel short-term WPP method comprised of localized direct and iterative prediction is proposed to perform multi-step prediction for the chaotic and nonchaotic components of MSSSA, respectively. The proposed framework is finally validated using historical data related to overall wind power generation for Alberta (Canada), the Sotavento wind farm (Spain), and Centennial wind farm in Saskatchewan (Canada).
Autors: Nima Safari;C. Y. Chung;G. C. D. Price;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 590 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Investigation on the Electrical Characteristics and Electron Energy Transformation of Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Ozone Generation
Abstract:
A numerical model consisting of 12 species and 65 reactions is developed and experimentally verified to be valid for the investigation of electrical characteristics and electron energy transformation in oxygen-fed pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for ozone generation. The simulation results show that there are two obvious discharges with opposite polarity in one pulse which agrees with many experimental observations. The first discharge is at the rising edge of pulse voltage, and the second discharge is at the falling edge. The former has a much higher current density than that of the latter. Moreover, a higher peak voltage results in an earlier and higher ignition voltage as well as a higher maximum current density. The contrary behavior for rising time is observed, and the ignition and maximum current density are independent of pulsewidth. In addition, the temporal distributions of total input power density, electron power density, and power density of electron consumed by reactions are obtained for the first discharge in DBD for the ozone generation. Only 19.35% of the total input energy within the first discharge is absorbed by electrons when peak voltage, rising time, and pulsewidth are 9 kV, 63.8 ns, and 100 ns, respectively, and 41.09% of electron energy is utilized effectively to form ozone.
Autors: Yafang Zhang;Xin Liang;Jinfeng Li;Linsheng Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 103 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Study on Mode Transition Characteristics in Atmospheric-Pressure Helium Pulsed Discharges With Pin–Plane Electrode
Abstract:
A 2-D fluid model is developed to study the pulsed discharges with pin–plane electrode in atmospheric pressure. A positive streamer forms at the pin electrode connecting to the applied voltage and then propagates toward to the ground plane electrode (cathode). Simulation results show if the streamer head is close enough to the cathode, in front of the original streamer a new streamer forms, and simultaneously a second positive current peak is observed, suggesting that the discharge mode transforms into glow mode. Otherwise, the discharge operates at corona mode. The characteristics of the two typical discharge modes are analyzed through the spatiotemporal evolution behaviors of conduction current, electron density, electric field, and electron flux. The transition between corona and glow modes depending on the discharge parameters such as applied voltage, curvature radii, and secondary electron emission coefficients are studied in this paper. It should be noted that no matter what discharge mode is, discharge with reversed direction appears at the falling edge of voltage pulse, which is caused by space charges.
Autors: Jiao Zhang;Yanhui Wang;Dezhen Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 19 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object Proposal Generation With Fully Convolutional Networks
Abstract:
Object proposal generation, as a preprocessing technique, has been widely used in current object detection pipelines to guide the search of objects and avoid exhaustive sliding window search across images. Current object proposals are mostly based on low-level image cues, such as edges and saliency. However, objectness is possibly a high-level semantic concept showing whether one region contains objects. This paper presents a framework utilizing fully convolutional networks (FCNs) to produce object proposal positions and bounding box location refinement with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to further improve proposal localization. Experiments on the PASCAL VOC 2007 show that using high-level semantic object proposals obtained by FCN, the object recall can be improved. An improvement in detection mean average precision is also seen when using our proposals in the Fast R-convolutional neural network framework. In addition, we also demonstrate that our method shows stronger robustness when introduced to image perturbations, e.g., blurring, JPEG compression, and salt and pepper noise. Finally, the generalization capability of our model (trained on the PASCAL VOC 2007) is evaluated and validated by testing on PASCAL VOC 2012 validation set, ILSVRC 2013 validation set, and MS COCO 2014 validation set.
Autors: Zequn Jie;Wen Feng Lu;Siavash Sakhavi;Yunchao Wei;Eng Hock Francis Tay;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 62 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object-Based Change Detection for VHR Images Based on Multiscale Uncertainty Analysis
Abstract:
Scale is of great significance in image analysis and interpretation. In order to utilize scale information, multiscale fusion is usually employed to combine change detection (CD) results from different scales. However, CD results from different scales are usually treated independently, which ignores the scale contextual information. To overcome this drawback, this letter introduces a novel object-based change detection (OBCD) technique for unsupervised CD in very high-resolution (VHR) images by incorporating multiscale uncertainty analysis. First, two temporal images are stacked and segmented using a series of optimal segmentation scales ranging from coarse to fine. Second, an initial CD result is obtained by fusing the pixel-based CD result and OBCD result based on Dempter–Shafer (DS) evidence theory. Third, multiscale uncertainty analysis is implemented from coarse scale to fine scale by support vector machine classification. Finally, a CD map is generated by combining all the available information in all the scales. The experimental results employing SPOT5 and GF-1 images demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach.
Autors: Yongjun Zhang;Daifeng Peng;Xu Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 13 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object-Based Superresolution Land-Cover Mapping From Remotely Sensed Imagery
Abstract:
Superresolution mapping (SRM) is a widely used technique to address the mixed pixel problem in pixel-based classification. Advanced object-based classification will face a similar mixed phenomenon—a mixed object that contains different land-cover classes. Currently, most SRM approaches focus on estimating the spatial location of classes within mixed pixels in pixel-based classification. Little if any consideration has been given to predicting where classes spatially distribute within mixed objects. This paper, therefore, proposes a new object-based SRM strategy (OSRM) to deal with mixed objects in object-based classification. First, it uses the deconvolution technique to estimate the semivariograms at target subpixel scale from the class proportions of irregular objects. Then, an area-to-point kriging method is applied to predict the soft class values of subpixels within each object according to the estimated semivariograms and the class proportions of objects. Finally, a linear optimization model at object level is built to determine the optimal class labels of subpixels within each object. Two synthetic images and a real remote sensing image were used to evaluate the performance of OSRM. The experimental results demonstrated that OSRM generated more land-cover details within mixed objects than did the traditional object-based hard classification and performed better than an existing pixel-based SRM method. Hence, OSRM provides a valuable solution to mixed objects in object-based classification.
Autors: Yuehong Chen;Yong Ge;Gerard B. M. Heuvelink;Ru An;Yu Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 328 - 340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observation of Whispering-Gallery Modes in a Diamond Microsphere
Abstract:
We demonstrate a Type Ib diamond (nitrogen impurity of >5 ppm) microsphere whispering-gallery mode resonator in the near-infrared wavelengths between 1426.10 nm and 1427.42 nm in the 90° elastic-light-scattering for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. The highest measured whispering-gallery mode quality-factor is in the order of 104, and the mode spacing is 0.332 nm both for TM and TE polarizations. The coupling of the continuous-wave tunable infrared excitation laser to the diamond microsphere is achieved by a single-mode silica optical-fiber half-coupler. Such a diamond resonator can further be used as stable optical-frequency-comb generating or lasing microcavities by exploiting the nitrogen-vacancy centers present within the diamond.
Autors: Mustafa Mert Bayer;Hüseyin Ozan Çirkinoğlu;Ali Serpengüzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 3 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Off-Body Spatial Diversity Reception Using Circular and Linear Polarization: Measurement and Modeling
Abstract:
A novel circular polarized (CP) spatial diversity reception scheme is proposed to mitigate the human-body-related fading in off-body communication. Compared with the typical linear polarized (LP) diversity receptions, it seems that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the root mean square delay spread, multi-path component numbers, and their variations over different persons and measured locations. Both the signal-level models of LP and CP diversity receptions which take the polarization misalignment into consideration are mathematically derived with the help of diversity gain and cross polarized discrimination gain factor. The equal-gain-combination signal levels for CP diversity reception are verified to be around 2.1 dB greater than the LP reception, if the polarization mismatch loss is removed. Furthermore, the great signal-level fluctuation caused by the polarization misalignment effect can be mitigated by introducing CP reception when comparing with LP one. The proposed scheme is expected to be useful for designing robust off-body communications.
Autors: Peng-Fei Cui;Wen-Jun Lu;Yu Yu;Bai Xue;Hong-Bo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 209 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ohmic Contact-Free Mobility Measurement in Ultra-Wide Bandgap AlGaN/AlGaN Devices
Abstract:
We measure the electron density dependence of carrier mobility in ultra-wide bandgap Al0.85Ga0.15N/Al0.7Ga0.3N heterostructures, using only Au/Pt Schottky contact deposition and without the need for Ohmic contacts. With this technique, we measure mobility over a two-dimensional electron gas density range from 1010 to 1013 cm−2 at an AlGaN/AlGaN heterojunction. At room temperature, subthreshold mobility was 4 cm2/Vs and peak mobility 155 cm2/Vs. Peak mobility decreased with temperature as T−0.86 suggesting alloy scattering as the dominant scattering mechanism.
Autors: Peter A. Butler;William M. Waller;Michael J. Uren;Andrew Allerman;Andrew Armstrong;Robert Kaplar;Martin Kuball;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 55 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Oleic Acid Surface Modification in the Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles by a Chemically Induced Transition
Abstract:
Using a chemically induced transition method, magnetic nanoparticles of -Fe2O3 coated by FeCl3 6H2O (-Fe2O3/FeCl3 6H2O nanoparticles) can be prepared. Surface modification is performed using oleic acid. By adding oleic acid during the synthesis, FeCl3 6H2O can be replaced to produce nanoparticles of -Fe2O3 coated by a monolayer of oleic acid (-Fe2O3/oleic acid nanoparticles). The amount of oleic acid added is sufficient, with the as-prepared sample single -Fe2O3/oleic acid nanoparticles, whereas the as-prepared sample is a mixture of both -Fe2O3/FeCl3 6H2O and -Fe2O3/oleic acid nanoparticles. By chemical species analysis, the mass fraction of both the -Fe2O3 phase and oleic acid adsorbed can be estimated. These magnetic nanoparticles coated by olei- acid can be considered as effective nanoparticles with an effective density . The reflects the amount of oleic acid chemisorbed on the nanoparticles. A kerosene-based suspension comprising the effective nanoparticles was synthesized. Results for the specific saturation magnetization and density of the suspension confirm the effective particle structure, involving the mass fraction of oleic acid adsorbed and the effective density of the effective particles.
Autors: Xiangshen Meng;Zhenghong He;Jianwei Zhao;Yueqiang Lin;Xiaodong Liu;Decai Li;Jian Li;Xiaoyan Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Choosing Training and Testing Data for Supervised Algorithms in Ground-Penetrating Radar Data for Buried Threat Detection
Abstract:
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most popular and successful sensing modalities that have been investigated for landmine and subsurface threat detection. Many of the detection algorithms applied to this task are supervised and therefore require labeled examples of threat and nonthreat data for training. Training data most often consist of 2-D images (or patches) of GPR data, from which features are extracted and provided to the classifier during training and testing. Identifying desirable training and testing locations to extract patches, which we term “keypoints,” is well established in the literature. In contrast, however, a large variety of strategies have been proposed regarding keypoint utilization (e.g., how many of the identified keypoints should be used at threat, or nonthreat, locations). Given a variety of keypoint utilization strategies that are available, it is very unclear: 1) which strategies are best or 2) whether the choice of strategy has a large impact on classifier performance. We address these questions by presenting a taxonomy of existing utilization strategies and then evaluating their effectiveness on a large data set using many different classifiers and features. We analyze the results and propose a new strategy, called PatchSelect, which outperforms other strategies across all experiments.
Autors: Daniël Reichman;Leslie M. Collins;Jordan M. Malof;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 497 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Codes Achieving Zero Error Capacities in Limited Magnitude Error Channels
Abstract:
Shannon in his 1956 seminal paper introduced the concept of the zero error capacity, , of a noisy channel. This is defined as the least upper bound of rates, at which, it is possible to transmit information with zero probability of error. At present not many codes are known to achieve the zero error capacity. In this paper, some codes which achieve zero error capacities in limited magnitude error channels are described. The code lengths of these zero error capacity achieving codes can be of any finite length , in contrast to the long lengths required for the known regular capacity achieving codes, such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, and polar codes. Both wrap around and non-wrap around limited magnitude error models are considered in this paper. For non-wrap around error model, the exact value of zero error capacities is derived, and optimal non-systematic and systematic codes are designed. The non-systematic codes achieve the zero error capacity with any finite length. The optimal systematic codes achieve the systematic zero error capacity of the channel, which is defined as the zero error capacity with the additional requirements that the communication must be carried out with a systematic code. It is also shown that the rates of the proposed systematic codes are equal to or approximately equal to the zero error capacity of the channel. For the wrap around model bounds are derived for the zero error capacity and in many cases the bounds give the exact value. In addition, optimal wrap around non-systematic and systematic codes are developed which either achieve or are close to achieving the zero error capacity with finite length.
Autors: Bella Bose;Noha Elarief;Luca G. Tallini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 257 - 273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Communication Through a Gaussian Channel With an MMSE Disturbance Constraint
Abstract:
This paper considers a Gaussian channel with one transmitter and two receivers. The goal is to maximize the communication rate at the intended/primary receiver subject to a disturbance constraint at the unintended/secondary receiver. The disturbance is measured in terms of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) of the interference that the transmission to the primary receiver inflicts on the secondary receiver. This paper presents a new upper bound for the problem of maximizing the mutual information subject to an MMSE constraint. The new bound holds for vector inputs of any length and recovers a previously known limiting (when the length of the vector input tends to infinity) expression from the work of Bustin et al. The key technical novelty is a new upper bound on the MMSE. This bound allows one to bound the MMSE for all signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values below a certain SNR at which the MMSE is known (which corresponds to the disturbance constraint). The bound also complements the “single-crossing point property” of the MMSE that upper bounds the MMSE for all SNR values above a certain value at which the MMSE value is known. The MMSE upper bound provides a refined characterization of the phase-transition phenomenon, which manifests, in the limit as the length of the vector input goes to infinity, as a discontinuity of the MMSE for the problem at hand. For vector inputs of size , a matching lower bound, to within an additive gap of order (where is the disturbance constraint), is shown by means of the mixed inputs technique recently introduced by Dytso et al.
Autors: Alex Dytso;Ronit Bustin;Daniela Tuninetti;Natasha Devroye;H. Vincent Poor;Shlomo Shamai Shitz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 513 - 530
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Expected Neighbor Discovery Time With Prior Information: Modeling, Bounds and Optimization
Abstract:
Neighbor discovery (ND) is an essential prerequisite for any peer-to-peer communication. In general, minimizing the discovery time is the goal for ND schemes. In this paper, we study the average discovery time for directional random ND when nodes have prior information about their set of possible neighbors, which also helps identify the performance limits of random ND schemes. Typically, discovery time analysis is done for assumptions that simplify the network structure, such as uniform neighbor relations for all nodes. However, with prior information the directional transmission probabilities depend on the node and the direction. This complicates the analysis of the expected discovery time. We first provide a closed-form expression for the expected discovery time based on the non-uniform coupon collector problem. Next, we identify directional transmission probabilities of each node that achieve a small discovery time. Due to the mathematical complexity, we provide a lower and an upper bound on the expected discovery time, which allows us to write the problem as a convex optimization problem. Through simulations, we demonstrate the performance gain due to prior knowledge with the proposed methods as compared with when no prior information is available, as well as the impact of uncertainty in the prior knowledge.
Autors: Daoud Burghal;Arash Saber Tehrani;Andreas F. Molisch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 339 - 351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Inertia Distribution, Inter-Area Oscillations and Location of Electronically-Interfaced Resources
Abstract:
This paper explores the relationships between inertia distribution, inter-area oscillations, and location of electronically-interfaced resources that are enabled with either damping or inertia emulation controllers (EIRs). A two-machine system with an EIR is used for analytical derivations. Explicit analytical expressions are found for: (a) the location of the center of inertia (COI), which depends on the H-inertia constant and voltage set-points of the machines, and (b) the residue of the system transfer function, which is convex in terms of the EIR location. These expressions are validated using full-order models for machines, exciters, and governors; the results support the idea of placing EIRs further away from the COI, or equivalently, in areas with low inertia to attain the highest possible oscillation damping. In the case of large-scale systems, an inertia distribution index is proposed which allows estimating the distance from any bus to the COI location. The efficacy of the proposed index is tested in a real system. The system areas with less inertia are proved to be the best places to deploy EIRs. The proposed index does not require computationally expensive calculations as those from modal analysis and it seems promising to better reinforce power system dynamics through EIRs.
Autors: Héctor Pulgar-Painemal;Yajun Wang;Horacio Silva-Saravia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 995 - 1003
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Random Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Internet-of-Things: A Game-Theoretic Approach
Abstract:
Security is one of the top considerations in hardware designs for Internet-of-Things (IoT), where embedded cryptosystems are extensively used. Traditionally, random dynamic voltage scaling technology has been shown to be very effective in improving the resistance of cryptosystems against side-channel attacks. However, in this paper we demonstrate that the resistance can be undermined by providing lower off-chip power supply voltage. In order to address this issue, we then further propose to monitor the off-chip power supply voltage, and trigger an alarm to protect valued information once the power supply voltage is lower than the expected voltage (threshold voltage). However, considering both maintenance cost of IoT devices and the environment noise on power supply voltage, we first formulated this problem as a nonzero sum game model, and the attacker and the circuit supplier (defender) are the players of this game. The analysis of the Nash equilibria in this game show interesting guideline to the defender about the choice of threshold voltage, which is based on parameters of cryptosystem including the value of information, denial-of-service cost in IoT, etc.
Autors: Hui Geng;Kevin A. Kwiat;Charles A. Kamhoua;Yiyu Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 123 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Achievable Throughput of Energy-Harvesting Nanonetworks in the Terahertz Band
Abstract:
In this paper, the maximum achievable throughput of electromagnetic nanonetworks in the terahertz (THz) band (0.1–10 THz) is comprehensively investigated. On the one hand, the peculiarities of the THz-band channel are taken into account by capturing the impact of the molecular absorption loss on the signal propagation. On the other hand, a two-state medium access control protocol is utilized to reflect the behavior of energy-harvesting nano-devices with constrained harvesting rate and maximum transmission power . An ad-hoc nanonetwork is considered with identical randomly located nano-devices, and each is capable of utilizing Hz of bandwidth. When the node density of nanonetworks is low, the achievable throughput is , where and refer to the spreading loss coefficient and the molecular absorption loss coefficient. When the node density of nanonetworks is very high, the interference among nano-devices governs the network behavior and the achievable throughput becomes . For both the cases, the upper boundaries of the achievable throughput are analytically derived, and the numerical results are provided. Numerical results illustrate that the molecular ab- orption loss plays the main role when the nanonetwork is sparse, and the interference dominates when the nanonetwork node density is very high.
Autors: Xin-Wei Yao;Chao-Chao Wang;Wan-Liang Wang;Josep Miquel Jornet;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 902 - 912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Combination of Double Space Time Transmit Diversity With Spatial Modulation
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a spatially modulated space-time block coding scheme, called DT-SM, by combining the conventional double space time transmit diversity (DSTTD) with spatial modulation. First, we design a set of four basic spatial constellation (SC) codewords and an extended set of 16 SC codewords for four transmit antennas by using computer search based on the rank and determinant criterion. We then present a generalized algorithm to design SC codewords for an arbitrary number of transmit antennas greater than four. Compared with DSTTD, the proposed scheme attains the same transmit diversity order, while offering higher spectral efficiency. Besides, we derive a union bound for the bit error rate (BER) of the proposed DT-SM scheme in a quasi-static Rayleigh fading channel with spatial correlation. In order to achieve the performance of maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation at reduced detection complexity, we develop a sphere decoder based on the conventional Schnorr-Euchner sphere decoder. BER performance and detection complexity of the DT-SM scheme are evaluated by computer simulations. It is shown that the proposed DT-SM outperforms many existing MIMO and SM-based MIMO schemes at reasonable detection complexity, even in correlated MIMO channels.
Autors: Minh-Tuan Le;Tien-Dong Nguyen;Xuan-Nam Tran;Vu-Duc Ngo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 170 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Complexity of Bounded View Propagation for Conjunctive Queries
Abstract:
The view propagation problem is a class of view update problem in relational databases  [7] , involving deletion and insertion propagations. Given source database , conjunctive query , view generated by query and a deletion (insertion) on view , deletion (insertion) propagation is to find a side effect free update on such that the deletion (insertion) of from (into) will delete (insert) the intentional ones without resulting in the deletion (insertion) of additional tuples from (into) the view. Generally, such a deletion (insertion) is side effect free. The related data management applications include query result explanation, data debugging, and anonymizing datasets, which rely on understanding how interventions in a database affect the output of a query. View propagation is a natural and typical way to define such interventions, which seems to be well-studied. However, in general, the candidate update on a source database is picked up aimlessly in advance, making the updated database to be very distant from the original one no matter whether it is the maximum one. In this paper, we formally define the bounded view propagation problem, where candidate update is bounded as a subset of potential which is a fixed small tuple set of . We study the complexity of this problem for conjunctive queries, and make contributions to the previous results of the problems of side-effect free deletion propagation. Specifically, our bounded view propagation problem decreases computational complexity regardless of conjunctive query structure. We show the fixed potential is actually a dichotomy for both deletion and insertion propagations, and figure out the results on combined complexity which is neglected previously. Based on our results, for view propagation, we map out a complete picture of the computational complexity h
Autors: Dongjing Miao;Zhipeng Cai;Jianzhong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 115 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Construction of LDPC Codes Free of Small Trapping Sets by Controlling Cycles
Abstract:
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes exhibit excellent error correcting capability. However, small trapping sets in the Tanner graph are harmful to the iterative decoding algorithm. In this letter, we present a method of constructing girth-eight quasi-cyclic LDPC codes with low error floor by removing the small trapping sets from the Tanner graph. To address this issue, we analyze the relationship between eight-cycles and small trapping sets of Tanner graphs based on fully connected base graphs without parallel edges. We find that if some eight-cycles are not found in the Tanner graphs, any elementary trapping set in the range of and is removed naturally. We also derive a lower bound on the permutation size for the construction of such codes. The experimental simulation shows a favorable error rate performance with lower error floor over additive white Gaussian noise channels.
Autors: Xiongfei Tao;Yufei Li;Yonghe Liu;Zuoqi Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 9 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Contribution to the Field of the Nonphysical Characteristic Modes in Infinite Dielectric Circular Cylinders Under Normal Excitation
Abstract:
Here, a detailed analysis of characteristic modes and fields of an infinite dielectric circular cylinder when computed through the Poggio-Miller–Chang-Harrington–Wu-Tsai formulation is carried out. The purpose is to determine their contribution to the total field, inside and outside the dielectric body and under two possible excitations: incident plane wave or electric line source within the cylinder. The study has been done analytically to provide necessary physical insight of the results obtained. New details about the so-called nonphysical modes are provided. It is found that these modes, that can be neglected outside the dielectric body, do have a significant contribution to the inner field when the excitation source is within the dielectric body. It is concluded that the terms physical and nonphysical characteristic modes should be replaced for radiating and nonradiating characteristic modes.
Autors: Tomás Bernabeu-Jiménez;Alejandro Valero-Nogueira;Felipe Vico-Bondia;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 505 - 510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Design of a Long Range WSN for Precision Irrigation
Abstract:
This research presents a WSN computer system model applied to precision irrigation, specifically for conditions in which sensor nodes may be located far from the coordinator. The proposed model is based on a tailored hardware and software aiming to extend both sensor nodes and WSN lifetime. The coordinator is aware of its sensor nodes’ available energy and such feature enables estimating the remaining lifetime of each sensor node. The so-called Sensor nOdes’ system for data acqUisition of Long range (SOUL) is the conceptual model for a sensor node hardware and software system design, concerning energy management and messages grouping, improving both sensor nodes and network lifetime. The sensor nodes were employed to monitor soil moisture and thus the SOUL computer system model was validated in field conditions. Sensor nodes lifetime was increased by 5.7 times when compared with a conventional use.
Autors: Ricardo Godoi Vieira;Adilson Marques da Cunha;Linnyer Beatryz Ruiz;Antonio Pires de Camargo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 773 - 780
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Development of a Robust Optical Fiber-Based Level Sensor
Abstract:
A novel optical fiber-based probe was used to determine the fluid level in a nitrate salt up to 400 °C. The probe consisted of a single mode optical fiber and heating element running coaxially, both encapsulated in a protective stainless steel sheath. The temperature was determined continuously along the length of the optical fiber with the use of Rayleigh backscatter based optical frequency domain reflectometry. With the heater activated, the convection coefficient of the surrounding medium defined the axial temperature profile of the probe. The gas-fluid interface was determined by fitting a numerically calculated temperature profile with actual optical fiber data by minimizing the sum of square residuals. The probe was successfully tested over a range of 18 cm, revealing an accuracy of ±1.7 mm and a response time as low as 5.3 s.
Autors: Matthew T. Weathered;Mark H. Anderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 583 - 588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Generalization of DIRECTFN for Singular Integrals Over Quadrilateral Patches
Abstract:
A set of fully numerical algorithms for evaluating the 4-D singular integrals arising from Galerkin surface integral equation methods over conforming quadrilateral meshes is presented. This paper is an extension of DIRECTFN, which was recently developed for the case of triangular patches, utilizing in the same fashion a series of coordinate transformations together with appropriate integration reorderings, and is applicable to coincident, edge adjacent, or vertex adjacent elements. The resulting formulas consist of sufficiently smooth kernels and exhibit several favorable characteristics when compared with the vast majority of the methods currently available. More specifically, they can be applied—without modifications—to the following challenging cases: 1) weakly and strongly singular kernels; 2) basis and testing functions of arbitrary order; 3) planar and curvilinear patches; 4) problem-specific Green functions (e.g., expressed in spectral integral form); and 5) spectral convergence to machine precision. Finally, we show that the overall performance of the fully numerical schemes can be further improved by a judicious choice of the integration order for each dimension.
Autors: Alexandra A. Tambova;Mikhail S. Litsarev;Georgy Guryev;Athanasios G. Polimeridis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 304 - 314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Hybrid TOA/RSS Range Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Distance estimation, which arises in many applications and especially in range-based localization, is addressed for joint received signal strength (RSS) and time of arrival (TOA) data. A statistical characterization of the joint maximum likelihood estimator, which is unavailable in closed-form, is provided together with a full performance assessment in terms of the actual mean squared error (MSE), in order to establish when hybrid estimation is superior compared to RSS-only or TOA-only estimation. Furthermore, a novel closed-form estimator is proposed based on an ad-hoc relaxation of the likelihood function, which removes the need to adopt iterative methods for hybrid TOA/RSS ranging and strikes a better bias-variance tradeoff for improved performance. A thorough theoretical analysis, corroborated by numerical simulations, shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which outperforms state-of-the-art solutions.
Autors: Angelo Coluccia;Alessio Fascista;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 361 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Maximum Number of Bent Components of Vectorial Functions
Abstract:
In this paper, we show that the maximum number of bent component functions of a vectorial function is . We also show that it is very easy to construct such functions. However, it is a much more challenging task to find such functions in polynomial form , where has only a few terms. The only known power functions having such a large number of bent components are , where . In this paper, we show that the binomials also have such a large number of bent components, and these binomials are inequivalent to the monomials if . In addition, the functions have differential properties much better than . We also determine the complete Walsh spectrum of our functions when is odd and .
Autors: Alexander Pott;Enes Pasalic;Amela Muratović-Ribić;Samed Bajrić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 403 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Minimization of Glass-to-Glass and Glass-to-Algorithm Delay in Video Communication
Abstract:
Video cameras are increasingly used to provide real-time feedback in automatic control systems, such as autonomous driving and robotics systems. For such highly dynamic applications, the glass-to-glass (G2G) and glass-to-algorithm (G2A) latencies are critical. In this paper, we analyze the latencies in a point-to-point video transmission system and propose novel frame skipping and preemption approaches to reduce the G2G and G2A delays. We implement the proposed approaches in a prototype that shows significantly reduced G2G and G2A latencies as well as reduced transmission bitrate requirements compared with traditional video transmission schemes. In our low-delay video communication prototype, a VGA resolution video is transmitted with average G2G and G2A delays of 21.2 and 11.5 ms, respectively, with off-the-shelf hardware.
Autors: Christoph Bachhuber;Eckehard Steinbach;Martin Freundl;Martin Reisslein;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 238 - 252
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Need of Joint Bandwidth and NFV Resource Orchestration: A Realistic 5G Access Network Use Case
Abstract:
5G envisages a “hyper-connected society,” where an enormous number of devices are inter-connected anywhere and at any time. Cloud-enabled radio access networks (RANs) where intelligence is placed in conjunction with the radio heads at the proximity of end users are a promising solution to fulfill the 5G expectations of sub-millisecond latency, huge traffic volumes, and higher data rates. Network functions virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) developments enable end users to access advanced features, such as configurability, automation, scalability, improved resource utilization, and multi tenancy over the cloud-enabled RANs. Management and orchestration techniques are the ultimate factor that determines the effectiveness of the novel SDN/NFV features being introduced. Our focus in this letter is the resource allocation in a realistic cloud-enabled RAN, taking into account the dynamics of ~100,000 persons movement in a crowded event, i.e., a football match. The proposed solution jointly orchestrates NFV and bandwidth resources, as one resource affects the other. Simulation results clearly verify the benefits of the proposed solution over traditional disjoint schemes.
Autors: Jose-Juan Pedreno-Manresa;Pouria Sayyad Khodashenas;Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui;Pablo Pavon-Marino;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 145 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Optimal Switch Functions for Fast FDTD Monochromatic Lightwave Generation
Abstract:
A smooth and monotone-increasing function is often applied to switch on a monochromatic lightwave source useful for modeling the coherent light interaction with optical and photonic structures by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. In this letter, the reasoning and guideline of the optimal switch functions for the fast generation of time-harmonic lightwaves in two or three periods were proposed and discussed based on the tradeoff between the higher order smoothness at the two connection points and the smaller average slope in the central segment of switch function in order to suppress the levels of high-frequency components of the impressed source that attribute to the initial transient magnitude deformation and fluctuation. Two candidates for the potentially optimal switch functions that satisfy the criteria are given, and numerical examples with FDTD simulations are presented to verify their superior performances over the conventional Hann function.
Autors: Zhili Lin;Weibin Qiu;Yuntuan Fang;Jixiong Pu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 115 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Performance of Spatially Correlated Large Antenna Arrays for Millimeter-Wave Frequencies
Abstract:
A spatially correlated large antenna array operating at millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies is considered. Based on a Saleh–Valenzuela channel model, closed-form expressions of the 3-D spatial correlation (SC) for wide, narrow, and Von Mises power elevation spectra (PESs) are analytically derived. The effects of the PES on the convergence to massive multiple-input-multiple-output properties are then illustrated by defining and deriving a diagonal dominance metric. Numerically, the effects of antenna element mutual coupling (MC) are shown on the effective SC, eigenvalue structure, and mmWave user rate for different antenna topologies. It is concluded that although MC can significantly reduce SC for side-by-side dipole antenna elements, the change in antenna effective gain (and, therefore, signal-to-noise ratio) caused by MC becomes a dominating effect and ultimately determines the antenna array performance. The user rate of an mmWave system with hybrid beamforming, using an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm, is then shown for different antenna topologies with dipole and cross-polarized (x-pol) antenna elements. It is seen that even for small numbers of radio frequency chains, the OMP algorithm works well relative to the fully digital case for channels with high SC, such as the x-pol antenna array.
Autors: Callum T. Neil;Adrian Garcia-Rodriguez;Peter J. Smith;Pawel A. Dmochowski;Christos Masouros;Mansoor Shafi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 132 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Processing of Very High Resolution Spaceborne SAR Data: A Chirp-Modulated Back Projection Approach
Abstract:
A new image formation algorithm is proposed for processing very high resolution spaceborne sliding-spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Because of along-track antenna steering, the Doppler bandwidth of the received SAR data is expanded significantly beyond one pulse repetition frequency interval. Furthermore, the range histories become spatially dependent in both dimensions and cannot be expressed exactly by a hyperbolic model. In our approach, we first reduce the Doppler bandwidth by a novel azimuth dechirp processing method in the range frequency domain. The data are then processed by the standard – algorithm with a fixed effective velocity. Thereafter, the chirp modulation concept is imported to rebuild new data with much shorter apertures. Finally, a standard back-projection algorithm is employed to accumulate the signal pixel by pixel along the newly built aperture. Thus, the balance between processing efficiency and precision can be controlled by adjusting the length of the new apertures. In addition, a more accurate 2-D spectrum derivation is employed to enhance the processing precision, and a novel range-splitting method is presented to accommodate the range dependence of effective velocities. Furthermore, when implementing the back projection, the image grid—the region and granularity level of which are user defined—is placed on the earth’s surface instead of on the slant-range plane, and the routine geometry projection processing thus becomes dispensable.
Autors: Dadi Meng;Chibiao Ding;Donghui Hu;Xiaolan Qiu;Lijia Huang;Bing Han;Jiayin Liu;Ning Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 191 - 201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Properties of the Power Systems Nodal Admittance Matrix
Abstract:
This letter provides conditions determining the rank of the nodal admittance matrix, and arbitrary block partitions of it, for connected AC power networks with complex admittances. Furthermore, some implications of these properties concerning Kron reduction and hybrid network parameters are outlined.
Autors: Andreas Martin Kettner;Mario Paolone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1130 - 1131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Treatment of Field Quantities and Elemental Continuity in FEM Solutions
Abstract:
As the finite element method (FEM) and the finite volume method (FVM), both traditional and high-order variants, continue their proliferation into various applied engineering disciplines, it is important that the visualization techniques and corresponding data analysis tools that act on the results produced by these methods faithfully represent the underlying data. To state this in another way: the interpretation of data generated by simulation needs to be consistent with the numerical schemes that underpin the specific solver technology. As the verifiable visualization literature has demonstrated: visual artifacts produced by the introduction of either explicit or implicit data transformations, such as data resampling, can sometimes distort or even obfuscate key scientific features in the data. In this paper, we focus on the handling of elemental continuity, which is often only continuous or piecewise discontinuous, when visualizing primary or derived fields from FEM or FVM simulations. We demonstrate that traditional data handling and visualization of these fields introduce visual errors. In addition, we show how the use of the recently proposed line-SIAC filter provides a way of handling elemental continuity issues in an accuracy-conserving manner with the added benefit of casting the data in a smooth context even if the representation is element discontinuous.
Autors: Ashok Jallepalli;Julia Docampo-Sánchez;Jennifer K. Ryan;Robert Haimes;Robert M. Kirby;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 903 - 912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Uplink Virtual MIMO with Device Relaying Cooperation Enforcement in 5G Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel protocol is proposed in which mobile terminals (MT) form a virtual Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) uplink by means of device relaying on Device to Device (D2D) tier in 5G Cellular Network. The competitive scenario is considered in which each of the selfish MTs tries to transmit its own data and not relay others’ data in the formed virtual MIMO. The main focus is to design an incentive for MTs to form the virtual MIMO and cooperate in relaying others data. A direct revelation on-line mechanism for the BS is designed, in order to assist forming a stable virtual MIMO. A self-punishment mechanism is also proposed in which MTs autonomously punish malicious MTs that do not cooperate in relaying. We prove that our designed direct revelation on-line mechanism and proposed self-punishment mechanism enforce all-cooperation (all-C) profile as a Nash equilibrium (NE), under uncertainty in the presence of MTs in the formed virtual MIMO. Our simulation results confirm that the proposed protocol, even in the competitive scenario, increases the bit rate and decreases power consumption at the same time. The proposed protocol can improve the energy efficiency up to 35 percent compared to a non-cooperative case, i.e., Single-Input Multiple-Output (SIMO) uplink. Moreover, if the multi-user MIMO transmission is used for the uplink medium access layer, the proposed protocol can improve the energy efficiency up to 42 percent compared to SIMO uplink with multi-user MIMO transmission. Under the proposed OCVM protocol with Shapley value fairness, the price of anarchy reaches to 0.78 in the competitive scenario. In addition, the energy efficiency improvement of our proposed protocol is almost robust to the preferences of MTs. Simulation results show that if BS employs our on-line mechanism and MTs autonomously punish malicious MTs, the malicious MTs cannot gain by defecting from relaying other MTs’ data.
Autors: Mehdi Naderi Soorki;Mohammad Hossein Manshaei;Behrouz Maham;Hossein Saidi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 155 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Variability of Renewable Energy and Online Power Allocation
Abstract:
As electric power system operators shift from conventional energy to renewable energy sources, power distribution systems will experience increasing fluctuations in supply. These fluctuations present the need to not only design online decentralized power allocation algorithms, but also characterize how effective they are given fast-changing consumer demand and generation. In this paper, we present an online decentralized dual descent (OD3) power allocation algorithm and determine (in the worst case) how much of observed social welfare can be explained by fluctuations in generation capacity and consumer demand. Convergence properties and performance guarantees of the OD3 algorithm are analyzed by characterizing the difference between the online decision and the optimal decision. We demonstrate validity and accuracy of the theoretical results in the paper through numerical experiments using real power generation data.
Autors: Chinwendu Enyioha;Sindri Magnússon;Kathryn Heal;Na Li;Carlo Fischione;Vahid Tarokh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 451 - 462
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On-Chip Interconnect Conductor Materials for End-of-Roadmap Technology Nodes
Abstract:
A comprehensive review of challenges and potential solutions associated with the impact of downscaling of integrated circuit (IC) feature sizes on on-chip interconnect materials is presented. The adoption of Moore's Law has led to developments and manufacturing of transistors with nanoscale dimensions, faster switching speeds, lower power consumption, and lower costs in recent generations of IC technology nodes. However, shrinking dimensions of wires connecting transistors have resulted in degradations in both performance and reliability, which in turn limit chip speed and lifetime. Therefore, to sustain the continuous downward scaling, alternative interconnect conductor materials to replace copper (Cu) and tungsten (W) must be explored to meet and overcome these challenges.
Autors: Anshul A. Vyas;Changjian Zhou;Cary Y. Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 4 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On-Chip SOI Delay Line Bank for Optical Buffers and Time Slot Interchangers
Abstract:
We demonstrate integrated silicon-on-insulator (SOI) spiral waveguides with record-high 2.6-ns/mm2 on-chip delay efficiency performing as delay bank stage in variable optical delay buffering and time-slot interchanger applications with 10-Gb/s optical packets. The micro-scale SOI chip comprises three integrated waveguide delay elements of different lengths, providing variable delays of 6.5, 11.3, and 17.2 ns, respectively. Utilizing two semiconductor optical amplifier Mach-Zehnder interferometer wavelength converters and on-chip packet delay, error-free on-chip variable delay buffering from 6.5 to 17.2 ns and successful time-slot interchanging for 10-Gb/s optical packets are presented.
Autors: M. Moralis-Pegios;G. Mourgias-Alexandris;N. Terzenidis;M. Cherchi;M. Harjanne;T. Aalto;A. Miliou;N. Pleros;K. Vyrsokinos;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 31 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» One-Dimensional Nonlinear Model for Producing Chaos
Abstract:
Motivated by the concept of circuit design in digital circuit, this paper proposes a one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear model (1D-NLM) for producing 1D discrete-time chaotic maps. Our previous works have designed four nonlinear operations of generating new chaotic maps. However, they focus only on discussing individual nonlinear operations and their properties, but fail to consider their relationship among these operations. The proposed 1D-NLM includes these existing nonlinear operations, develops two new nonlinear operations, discusses their relationship among different nonlinear operations, and investigates the properties of different combinations of these operations. To show the effectiveness of 1D-NLM in generating new chaotic maps, as examples, we provide four new chaotic maps and study their dynamics properties from following three aspects: equilibrium point, stability, and bifurcation diagram. Performance evaluations are provided using the Lyapunov exponent, Shannon entropy, correlation dimension, and initial state sensitivity. The evaluation results show that these new chaotic maps have more complex chaotic behaviors than existing ones. To demonstrate the performance of 1D-NLM in practical applications, we use a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to compare new and existing chaotic maps. The randomness test results indicate that new chaotic map generated by 1D-NLM shows better performance than existing ones in designing PRNG.
Autors: Zhongyun Hua;Yicong Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 235 - 246
Publisher: IEEE
 
» One-Way Electromagnetic Mode Guided by the Mechanism of Total Internal Reflection
Abstract:
One-way electromagnetic mode that is guided by the mechanism of total internal reflection (TIR) can be realized in terahertz regime. In the optical system consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched between magnetized semiconductor and metal, the one-way TIR mode can be immune to backscattering at imperfections. This mode possesses a broad band when high-order TIR modes are suppressed in the relevant semiconductor bandgap. Furthermore, it is shown that compared with one-way surface magnetoplasmons, the one-way TIR mode can more effectively match with the fundamental mode of conventional optical waveguide.
Autors: Linfang Shen;Jie Xu;Yun You;Kai Yuan;Xiaohua Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 133 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Multi-Object Tracking Using Hierarchical Constraints for Complex Scenarios
Abstract:
Online multi-object tracking (MOT) in an intelligent vehicle platform aims at locating the surrounding objects in real time, which remains far from being solved in complex scenarios, due to various motion patterns of tracked objects and severe occlusions caused by cluttered background or other objects. In this paper, we establish a unified online MOT framework for complex scenarios that employs a hierarchical model to improve the solution of data association, termed hierarchical MOT (HMOT). Incorporating the multiple Gaussians uncertainty theory into the individual motion model for each target followed by imposing interaction constraint to re-associate the tracklets with lower confidence leads our algorithm to achieve accurate multi-object tracking. With such a model, individual objects are not only more precisely associated across frames, but also dynamically constrained with each other in a global manner. Experiments on challenging data sets verify the performance of the proposed HMOT approach over the other state-of-the-art MOT methods.
Autors: Junying Liu;Xianbin Cao;Yan Li;Baochang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 151 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Online Tool Wear Monitoring Via Hidden Semi-Markov Model With Dependent Durations
Abstract:
The tool wear monitoring (TWM) system that could estimate tool wear conditions and predict remaining useful life (RUL) is important to meet the high precision requirement and improve productivity in automated machining. Due to its good properties in representing nonstationary and complex physical process, hidden semi-Markov Model (HSMM) is adapted to model the progressive tool wear in this paper. In order to describe the time-variant transition probability of tool wear states and the state duration dependency, the HSMM is improved by learning the duration parameters and RUL distribution database. The Forward algorithm is utilized for online tool wear estimation and remaining life prognosis, and an online implementation approach is developed to reduce computational cost. Experimental results show that the approach is effective and the proposed method of duration dependency modeling leads to more accurate TWM in high speed milling.
Autors: Kunpeng Zhu;Tongshun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 69 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Open vs. Closed Shapes: New Perceptual Categories?
Abstract:
Effective communication using visualization relies in part on the use of viable encoding strategies. For example, a viewer's ability to rapidly and accurately discern between two or more categorical variables in a chart or figure is contingent upon the distinctiveness of the encodings applied to each variable. Research in perception suggests that color is a more salient visual feature when compared to shape and although that finding is supported by visualization studies, characteristics of shape also yield meaningful differences in distinctiveness. We propose that open or closed shapes (that is, whether shapes are composed of line segments that are bounded across a region of space or not) represent a salient characteristic that influences perceptual processing. Three experiments were performed to test the reliability of the open/closed category; the first two from the perspective of attentional allocation, and the third experiment in the context of multi-class scatterplot displays. In the first, a flanker paradigm was used to test whether perceptual load and open/closed feature category would modulate the effect of the flanker on target processing. Results showed an influence of both variables. The second experiment used a Same/Different reaction time task to replicate and extend those findings. Results from both show that responses are faster and more accurate when closed rather than open shapes are processed as targets, and there is more processing interference when two competing shapes come from the same rather than different open or closed feature categories. The third experiment employed three commonly used visual analytic tasks - perception of average value, numerosity, and linear relationships with both single and dual displays of open and closed symbols. Our findings show that for numerosity and trend judgments, in particular, that different symbols from the same open or closed feature category cause more perceptual interferen- e when they are presented together in a plot than symbols from different categories. Moreover, the extent of the interference appears to depend upon whether the participant is focused on processing open or closed symbols.
Autors: David Burlinson;Kalpathi Subramanian;Paula Goolkasian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 574 - 583
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Opportunistic Relaying and Random Linear Network Coding for Secure and Reliable Communication
Abstract:
Opportunistic relaying has the potential to achieve full diversity gain, while random linear network coding (RLNC) can reduce latency and energy consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the integration of both schemes into wireless networks in order to reap their benefits, while considering security concerns. This paper considers a multi-relay network, where relay nodes employ RLNC to encode confidential data and transmit coded packets to a destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Four relay selection protocols are studied covering a range of network capabilities, such as the availability of the eavesdropper’s channel state information or the possibility to pair the selected relay with a node that intentionally generates interference. For each case, expressions for the probability that a coded packet will not be recovered by a receiver, which can be either the destination or the eavesdropper, are derived. Based on those expressions, a framework is developed that characterizes the probability of the eavesdropper intercepting a sufficient number of coded packets and partially or fully recovering the confidential data. Simulation results confirm the validity and accuracy of the theoretical framework and unveil the security-reliability trade-offs attained by each RLNC-enabled relay selection protocol.
Autors: Amjad Saeed Khan;Ioannis Chatzigeorgiou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 223 - 234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Modulation and Antialiasing Methods for Experimental Verification of Sensor Signal Integrity
Abstract:
In this paper, the use of laser modulation for characterizing the sensitivity of infrared sensors and autonomously adjusting frame rates are discussed. Lasers modulated at frequencies near the frame rate of the sensor under test demonstrated a more significant effect than modulation frequencies further from the frame rate. A method to quantify the effectiveness of a particular laser modulation frequency was developed. Experimental runs with and without laser tracking are compared in order to demonstrate how the laser affects the tracking algorithms of the sensor. The effect of the relationship between the modulation frequency and the frame rate on the sensor’s accuracy is also determined. An algorithm was developed to improve a sensor’s ability to detect signals modulated at its frame rate. The paper concludes with discussions on applications of these results to commonly available sensor systems.
Autors: Frances Bodrucki;Andrew Hill;Justin Davis;John Cordell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 101 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Sectioning Tomographic Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Flame Temperature Distribution Using Single Light Field Camera
Abstract:
The temperature measurement has great significance for the combustion diagnostics and the study of flame characteristics. In this paper, an optical sectioning tomographic (OST) technique for 3-D flame temperature measurement combined with light field imaging is proposed. First, the fundamental principle of light field OST is introduced in detail. Then, to determine the refocused depth, the point spread functions of the light field camera, and the relationship between the radiation intensity of flame and image gray value, the calibration works are carried out. Furthermore, the images of different sections of flame are acquired by the digital refocusing technology, and then the high-precision and real-time radiation intensity distribution of each section can be reconstructed using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Finally, in combination with the relationship between the image gray value and radiation intensity of flame, the 3-D flame temperature distribution can be calculated. The flame experiments of a candle and a single biomass particle in a fluidized bed under oxy-combustion conditions are performed to evaluate the light field OST system. Results show that the reconstructed results are in good agreement with the temperature distribution of the combustion flame. Compared with the traditional optical sectioning tomographic techniques, the light field OST has the advantages of simplicity of measurement system and fast response, and being suitable for 3-D temperature measurement of turbulent flame.
Autors: Wenchao Zhao;Biao Zhang;Chuanlong Xu;Lunbo Duan;Shimin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 528 - 539
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optical Wireless MIMO Experiments in an Industrial Environment
Abstract:
This paper reports on a field trial in a robotic manufacturing cell. Channel measurements and transmission experiments were conducted, assisting the development of a light-emitting diode-based optical wireless communication (OWC) system tailored for the needs of industrial wireless applications. These are moderate data rates, reliability, and low latency. Since dedicated radio spectrum is hardly available, the usage of light is an interesting alternative. Due to its spatial confinement, OWC links provide enhanced security and are difficult to jam from outside a building—a particularly interesting property for industrial applications. We performed broadband distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel measurements in a manufacturing cell. Results confirm that the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficient if a line-of-sight (LOS) is available and bandwidth is limited to a few megahertz. However, small movements and rotations may lead to sudden fades of 10–20 dB, when an LOS is blocked. To improve reliability, antenna diversity concepts are applied. Results show that for reliable communication, MIMO diversity schemes are indispensable as it increases the probability of a free LOS significantly. Based on these insights, we suggest an OWC design tailored to industrial wireless applications.
Autors: Pablo Wilke Berenguer;Dominic Schulz;Jonas Hilt;Peter Hellwig;Gerhard Kleinpeter;Johannes K. Fischer;Volker Jungnickel;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 185 - 193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Code Partitioning Over Time and Hierarchical Cloudlets
Abstract:
This letter proposes a task scheduling scheme designed for code partitioning over time and the hierarchical cloudlets in a mobile edge network. To this end, we define the so called energy-time cost parameters to optimally schedule tasks over time and hierarchical cloudlet locations. Accordingly, we investigate two different optimization scenarios. In particular, the first scenario aims at finding the optimal task scheduling for given radio parameters. In the second scenario, we carry out the optimization of both the task scheduling and the mobile device’s transmission power. More importantly, we show that by adopting the proposed code partitioning scheme in this letter, the transmission power optimization problem becomes a disjoint problem from the task scheduling problem.
Autors: Abbas Kiani;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 181 - 184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Combining for Optical Wireless Systems With Amplification: The $chi ^{2}$ Noise Regime
Abstract:
We present novel analytical results on the optimal combiner (OC) for pre-amplified optical wireless receivers under chi-squared noise. The results show that the OC architecture that minimizes the average bit-error rate (BER) is determined by the level of the signal-spontaneous beating noise. Moreover, the OC provides increased gain to the diversity branches with the higher energies, up to the point where the beating noise becomes detrimental to the BER. The performance of the OC is simulated for practical receiver arrangements and it is shown that it performs better than the maximal-ratio and equal-gain combiners. The performance improvement amounts to an energy gain of less than 1 dB for implementations that utilize narrow optical filters and a modest number of diversity branches.
Autors: Konstantinos Yiannopoulos;Nikos C. Sagias;Anthony C. Boucouvalas;Kostas Peppas;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 30, issue:1, pages: 119 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Cross-Layer-Based Asymmetric Resource Allocation for Multidestination Relay Systems
Abstract:
A cross-layer based asymmetric resource allocation strategy for multi-destination relay systems in cellular downlink is proposed in this paper. Existing cross-layer schemes on relay networks are based on symmetric resource allocation (RA) where the transmit duration is assumed to be symmetric between base station to relay station (RS) and RS to mobile station links. This may not be realistic and hence our proposed model considers an asymmetric RA (ARA) in which the transmit durations are asymmetric. Very little work has been done in asymmetric resource allocation and many have failed to consider the queue stability and quality of service (QoS) requirements. Packet length ratio is also ignored in many of these works. In this paper, maximum delay threshold, minimum data rate requirement and zero overflow are considered as QoS requirements. This paper evolves an optimal cross-layer based ARA taking into account the above-mentioned factors. Simulation results are also verified in a cellular testbed which shows that the proposed ARA serves the edge users satisfactorily. Cellular parameters, such as blocking ratio, operating expenditure, electromagnetic pollution index, and QoS assurance, are evaluated and compared.
Autors: L. Senthilkumar;M. Meenakshi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 250 - 265
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimal Joint Energy and Secondary Regulation Reserve Hourly Scheduling of Variable Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants
Abstract:
This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model for the hourly energy and secondary regulation reserve scheduling of a price-taker and closed-loop variable speed pumped-storage hydropower plant, considering the energy losses due to the use of electronic frequency converters. The plant participates in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Iberian electric power system. The model is utilised to compare the income of the plant with and without considering the variable speed technology, with synchronous or asynchronous machines, with and without bypassing the frequency converter in generating mode, and with and without perfect information of the electric power system data. Numerical testing results demonstrate that the operation with the variable speed technology could help notably to enlarge the income of the power plant and that the secondary regulation reserve market might be the main source of revenue for the power plant.
Autors: Manuel Chazarra;Juan Ignacio Pérez-Díaz;Javier García-González;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 103 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 

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