Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 01-2018 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Hybrid Boundary Element Model for Simulation and Optimization of Large Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays
Abstract:
A hybrid boundary element model is proposed for the simulation of large piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) arrays in immersion. Multiphysics finite element method (FEM) simulation of a single-membrane structure is used to determine stiffness and piezoelectrically induced actuation loading of the membranes. To simulate the arrays of membranes in immersion, a boundary element method is employed, wherein membrane structures are modeled by a surface mesh that is coupled mechanically by mass, stiffness, and damping matrices, and acoustically by a mutual impedance matrix. A multilevel fast multipole algorithm speeds up computation time and reduces memory usage, enabling the simulation of thousands of membranes in a reasonable time. The model is validated with FEM for a small 3 3 matrix array for both square and circular membrane geometries. Two practical optimization examples of large PMUT arrays are demonstrated: membrane spacing of a 7 7 matrix array with circular membranes, and material choice and top electrode coverage of a 32-element linear array with 640 circular membranes. In addition, a simple analytical approach to electrode optimization based on normal mode theory is verified.
Autors: Bernard Shieh;Karim G. Sabra;F. Levent Degertekin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 50 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Image Registration and Matching Framework for Real-Time Motion Tracking in MRI-Guided Radiotherapy
Abstract:
Objective: MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT) is an emerging treatment technique where anatomical and pathological structures are imaged through integrated MR-radiotherapy units. This work aims 1) at assessing the accuracy of optical-flow-based motion tracking in liver cine-MRI sequences; and 2) at testing a MRIgRT workflow combining similarity-based image matching with image registration. Methods: After an initialization stage, a set of template images is collected and registered to the first frame of the cine-MRI sequence. Subsequent incoming frames are either matched to the most similar template image or registered to the first frame when the similarity index is lower than a given threshold. The tracking accuracy was evaluated by considering ground-truth liver landmarks trajectories, as obtained through the scale-invariant features transform (SIFT). Results: Results on a population of 30 liver subjects show that the median difference between SIFT- and optical flow-based landmarks trajectories is 1.0 mm, i.e., lower than the cine-MRI pixel size (1.28 mm). The computational time of the motion tracking workflow (<50 ms) is suitable for real-time motion compensation in MRIgRT. Such time could be further reduced to ≍30 ms with limited loss of accuracy by the combined image matching/registration approach. Conclusion: The reported workflow allows us to track liver motion with accuracy comparable to robust feature matching. Its computational time is suitable for online motion monitoring. Significance: Real-time feedback on the patient anatomy is a crucial requirement for the treatment of mobile tumors using advanced motion mitigation strategies.
Autors: Matteo Seregni;Chiara Paganelli;Paul Summers;Massimo Bellomi;Guido Baroni;Marco Riboldi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 131 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Regularization Technique for Solving Highly Nonlinear Inverse Scattering Problems
Abstract:
Solving inverse scattering problems (ISPs) for targets with high contrasts and/or large dimensions suffer from severe ill-posedness and strong nonlinearity. Recently, a family of new integral equations (NIE) has been proposed to tackle such problems, in which the multiple scattering effects in estimating contrasts during inversions are suppressed by the local wave effects. This effectively reduces the nonlinearity of ISPs by transforming the problems into a new form. As in most inversions, to achieve better (stabler and faster) inversion efficiency, proper regularization techniques are needed. This paper provides the detailed studies on the two different types of regularization techniques in the inversions with the NIE, i.e., the twofold subspace-based optimization method, directly applied in the modeling, and the total variation type multiplicative regularization, conventionally applied on the unknowns. We will show that how each regularization works with the NIE and how they work together with the NIE to obtain the better performance in terms of reducing the nonlinearity and increasing the stability of the inversions. Numerical tests against synthetic data and experimental data are provided to verify the interests.
Autors: Kuiwen Xu;Yu Zhong;Gaofeng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 11 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A K-Band Backscatter Fiducial for Continuous Calibration in Coherent Millimeter-Wave Imaging
Abstract:
We present a modulated ultrawideband backscatter calibration target (fiducial) intended for group delay calibration in large-aperture multitransceiver millimeter-wave imagers. The fiducial is designed to resemble a modulated point scatterer across the K-band (17.5–26.5 GHz). Multiple such fiducials may be used to mitigate thermal and mechanical drift across multiple transceivers comprising the imager. This approach allows tracking and removing both time-varying amplitude and phase drift in the RF hardware and associated cables. Backscatter modulation of the fiducial allows the system to separate the fiducial from the imaged scene and clutter in the environment. We show that the −10 dB beamwidth of the proposed fiducial is approximately 84° along the azimuth plane and 60° along the elevation plane. A proof of concept group delay calibration experiment is presented for a K-band laboratory setup, where a single fiducial and a metal plate target are placed in a scene together. After the backscatter-based calibration, the measured range error of the metal plate at a two-way slant distance of 70.54 cm is reduced to only 1.06 mm (0.15% position error).
Autors: Apoorva Sharma;Andreas Pedross-Engel;Daniel Arnitz;Claire M. Watts;David R. Smith;Matthew S. Reynolds;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 431 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Large Comparison of Feature-Based Approaches for Buried Target Classification in Forward-Looking Ground-Penetrating Radar
Abstract:
Forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR) has recently been investigated as a remote-sensing modality for buried target detection (e.g., landmines). In this context, raw FLGPR data are beamformed into images, and then, computerized algorithms are applied to automatically detect subsurface buried targets. Most existing algorithms are supervised, meaning that they are trained to discriminate between labeled target and nontarget imagery, usually based on features extracted from the imagery. A large number of features have been proposed for this purpose; however, thus far it is unclear as to which are the most effective. The first goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive comparison of detection performance using existing features on a large collection of FLGPR data. Fusion of the decisions resulting from processing each feature is also considered. The second goal of this paper is to investigate two modern feature learning approaches from the object recognition literature: the bag-of-visual words and the Fisher vector for FLGPR processing. The results indicate that the new feature learning approaches lead to the best performing FLGPR algorithm. The results also show that fusion between existing features and new features yields no additional performance improvements.
Autors: Joseph A. Camilo;Leslie M. Collins;Jordan M. Malof;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 547 - 558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Learning Scheme for Microgrid Reconnection
Abstract:
This paper introduces a potential learning scheme that can dynamically predict the stability of the reconnection of subnetworks to a main grid. As the future electrical power systems tend toward smarter and greener technology, the deployment of self sufficient networks, or microgrids, becomes more likely. Microgrids may operate on their own or synchronized with the main grid, thus control methods need to take into account islanding and reconnecting of said networks. The ability to optimally and safely reconnect a portion of the grid is not well understood and, as of now, limited to raw synchronization between interconnection points. A support vector machine (SVM) leveraging real-time data from phasor measurement units is proposed to predict in real time whether the reconnection of a subnetwork to the main grid would lead to stability or instability. A dynamics simulator fed with preacquired system parameters is used to create training data for the SVM in various operating states. The classifier was tested on a variety of cases and operating points to ensure diversity. Accuracies of approximately 85% were observed throughout most conditions when making dynamic predictions of a given network.
Autors: Carter Lassetter;Eduardo Cotilla-Sanchez;Jinsub Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 691 - 700
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Radar Cross Section and Low Profile Antenna Co-Designed With Absorbent Frequency Selective Radome
Abstract:
A low radar cross section (RCS) and low profile antenna co-designed with absorbent frequency selective radome (AFSR) is investigated. A pair of circular slot resonators is embedded on surface of the AFSR to realize a transmission window in the vertical polarization, while the wide absorption band is still maintained in the horizontal polarization. When a patch antenna is etched within the AFSR, where the metal grounds of the patch antenna and AFSR are co-used, the co-designed antenna with low RCS and low profile is thus realized. For demonstration, an AFSR is designed with its transmission window has a minimal insertion loss of 0.45 dB at 8.9 GHz, and two separate absorption bands (a lower absorption band from 4.8 to 7.5 GHz and an upper absorption band from 10 to 13 GHz) in the vertical polarization, a wide absorption band (from 4.5 to 12.5 GHz) in the horizontal polarization. A patch antenna etched within the AFSR is optimized to operate at 8.9 GHz, then it is simulated and fabricated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna not only has good radiation patterns, but also obtains significant RCS reduction.
Autors: Peng Mei;Xian Qi Lin;Jia Wei Yu;Peng Cheng Zhang;Abdelheq Boukarkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 409 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Loss Self-Packaged Magic-T With Compact Size Using SISL Technology
Abstract:
This letter proposes a low-loss self-packaged magic-T with compact size using substrate integrated suspended line (SISL) technology. The microstrip-slot transition is embedded inside the SISL multilayer structure and thus the radiation loss caused by the slot can be reduced to minimum. The measured results, which agree well with the simulation ones, show that from 5 to 9 GHz, i.e., 57% fractional bandwidth, the measured return loss of each port is better than about 10 dB, the measured isolation between difference port and sum port is better than 35 dB, and the measured amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance are ±0.8° and ±0.14 dB, respectively. The implemented magic-T has a compact size of , which is much smaller than previous designs.
Autors: Yongqiang Wang;Kaixue Ma;Shouxian Mou;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 13 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensor With Digital Correlated Multiple Sampling
Abstract:
This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor using conventional 3T active pixel with Nwell/Psub diode as photo detector. Both fixed pattern noise (FPN) and temporal noise are suppressed by the proposed digital correlated multiple sampling (DCMS) technology. FPN and temporal noise from pixel, buffer circuit, and column-parallel ADC are analyzed in detail, and the total noise with DCMS is derived. General expression of 1/f noise with correlated multiple sampling is given, illustrating impact of delay time in DCMS. Output noise of image sensor, frame rate, power, and area are affected by order and oversampling ratio of sigma–delta ADC, which are discussed for practical design. A prototype CMOS image sensor with pixel array and second-order incremental sigma–delta ADCs is implemented with the 0.35- standard CMOS process. Measurement results of the implemented image sensor show a column FPN of 0.009%, an input referred noise of 3.5 , and a dynamic range of 84 dB with oversampling ratio of 255. This indicates that image sensor with low noise can be achieved by DCMS without the CIS process and column amplification.
Autors: Nan Chen;Shengyou Zhong;Mei Zou;Jiqing Zhang;Zhongshun Ji;Libin Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 84 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Convolutional Neural Network Face Recognition Processor and a CIS Integrated With Always-on Face Detector
Abstract:
A Low-power convolutional neural network (CNN)-based face recognition system is proposed for the user authentication in smart devices. The system consists of two chips: an always-on CMOS image sensor (CIS)-based face detector (FD) and a low-power CNN processor. For always-on FD, analog–digital Hybrid Haar-like FD is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of FD by 39%. For low-power CNN processing, the CNN processor with 1024 MAC units and 8192-bit-wide local distributed memory operates at near threshold voltage, 0.46 V with 5-MHz clock frequency. In addition, the separable filter approximation is adopted for the workload reduction of CNN, and transpose-read SRAM using 7T SRAM cell is proposed to reduce the activity factor of the data read operation. Implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology, the mm2 CIS chip and the mm2 CNN processor consume 0.62 mW to evaluate one face at 1 fps and achieved 97% accuracy in LFW dataset.
Autors: Kyeongryeol Bong;Sungpill Choi;Changhyeon Kim;Donghyeon Han;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 115 - 123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Hybrid-Integrated 40-Gb/s Optical Receiver in Silicon
Abstract:
A low-power hybrid-integrated 40-Gb/s optical receiver is reported. The receiver consists of a broadband photodiode fabricated in a 0.18- Ge-on-SOI process packaged with an mm-wave electronic chip fabricated in a 0.13- SiGe BiCMOS process. The electronic chip consists of a low-noise transimpedance amplifier front-end, a three-stage Cherry–Hooper limiting amplifier, an output driver, and an offset cancellation network. The effect of the bond-wires, as the interface between the photonic and electronic chips, on the overall performance of the receiver is studied. The sensitivity level remains better than −11.0 dBm (bit error rate ) with bond-wire length variation from 300 to 600 enabling a low-cost and reliable packaging solution for such optical receivers. The measured eye diagram has a 100-mVpp single-ended opening at 40 Gb/s. The receiver consumes 77 mW.
Autors: Zhe Xuan;Ran Ding;Yang Liu;Tom Baehr-Jones;Michael Hochberg;Firooz Aflatouni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 589 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Speech Recognizer and Voice Activity Detector Using Deep Neural Networks
Abstract:
This paper describes digital circuit architectures for automatic speech recognition (ASR) and voice activity detection (VAD) with improved accuracy, programmability, and scalability. Our ASR architecture is designed to minimize off-chip memory bandwidth, which is the main driver of system power consumption. A SIMD processor with 32 parallel execution units efficiently evaluates feed-forward deep neural networks (NNs) for ASR, limiting memory usage with a sparse quantized weight matrix format. We argue that VADs should prioritize accuracy over area and power, and introduce a VAD circuit that uses an NN to classify modulation frequency features with 22.3- power consumption. The 65-nm test chip is shown to perform a variety of ASR tasks in real time, with vocabularies ranging from 11 words to 145 000 words and full-chip power consumption ranging from 172 to 7.78 mW.
Autors: Michael Price;James Glass;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 66 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Dual-Polarized High-Isolation MIMO Antenna Arrays for Wideband Base-Station Applications
Abstract:
A low-profile dual-polarized high-isolation multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna array for wideband base-station applications is presented in this paper. The proposed dual-polarized antenna element has the advantage of lower profile () by utilizing artificial magnetic conductor structure. The antenna array consisting of four elements is working within the frequency band from 2.4 to 3 GHz. Furthermore, decoupling branches among the elements are introduced to improve the isolation by about 10 dB. Both simulation and measured results indicate that the proposed dual-polarized antenna element has a good isolation over 28 dB. Moreover, the beamwidth of the antenna array can be effectively broadened by the adjustment of phase distributions of corresponding artificial material plane. Finally, a larger MIMO system is also investigated, and the simulation and measured results prove that dual-polarized dipole antenna MIMO array has good system performance.
Autors: Huiqing Zhai;Lei Xi;Yiping Zang;Long Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 191 - 202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Reflectivity Vacuum Window for Rectangular Hollow Waveguides
Abstract:
The design and performance of a broadband and low-reflectivity millimeter-wave vacuum window for rectangular hollow waveguides are presented. A reflectivity below −15 dB is achieved over almost the full -band. The vacuum window is sufficiently compact, so that two separate channels fit into a single ConFlat CF-35 vacuum flange. The proposed vacuum window utilizes a well-known circuit concept based on two-quadrature hybrid couplers together with two identical vacuum barriers (similar to a balanced amplifier). Due to the dielectric discontinuity at the vacuum barrier, a part of the incident wave is transmitted and another part is reflected. A hybrid lattice network recombines the transmitted signals and reroutes all reflected power to absorbers. The proposed low-reflectivity vacuum window has been fabricated in the WR10 waveguide technology. Broadband branch-guide couplers enable an operational frequency range of 75–105 GHz. Ultrahigh vacuum compatibility is verified by a helium leak rate test, and electrical measurements show good agreement with full-wave simulations.
Autors: Christian Koenen;Gerhard F. Hamberger;Uwe Siart;Thomas F. Eibert;Hans-Ulrich Nickel;Garrard D. Conway;Ulrich Stroth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 128 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Measurement Technique for Infrared Emissivity of Epoxy-Based Microwave Absorbing Materials
Abstract:
Infrared (IR) emissivity is a critical parameter for modeling and predicting heat transfer by radiation. Microwave absorbing materials, having a high emissivity in the microwave spectrum, are crucial in a wide array of applications, such as electromagnetic interference mitigation, stealth technology, and microwave remote sensing and radiometer calibration. Accurate knowledge of the thermal properties of these materials is necessary for efficient design and optimization of these types of systems. Typical microwave absorbing materials consist of a dielectric epoxy material impregnated with a lossy material, such as iron or carbon. We study a novel cryogenically compatible epoxy-based absorber material that has been loaded with varying concentrations of carbonyl iron powder (CIP). We study six materials with CIP concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% by tap volume. We use a commercial IR camera with sensitivity in the range 7.5– to measure the radiance of the samples and a waterbath IR blackbody at ten temperatures between about 19 °C and 45 °C. A linear Deming fitting is performed, considering uncertainties in both the measured parameters, and the slope of the linear fit is shown to be the IR emissivity, averaged over the spectral response of the camera. The emissivity ranges between 0.868 and 0.757, decreasing monotonically as a function of iron carbonyl concentration between 0% and 50%. The uncertainty of the emissivity determination method is derived and presented. The uncertainty of the presented method is shown to be no larger than 3.3% for all measured samples.
Autors: Derek A. Houtz;Dazhen Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 48 - 52
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Collecting Single Cell Suspensions Using an Ultrasonic Pump
Abstract:
The presence of cell aggregates in cell suspensions may reduce cell culture efficiency because they can induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation. To avoid this problem, this study proposes a novel method for collecting single cell suspensions from culture chambers for subculture using an ultrasonic pump driven by the squeeze film effect. First, we developed a cell culture device consisting of a cell culture substrate with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the back, so that we can elicit resonance vibration of the substrate. A glass pipe is then placed vertically against the cell culture substrate with a slight gap (corresponding to cell diameter) between the pipe and the substrate. By exciting an out-of-plane resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate, we can collect a cell suspension from the cell culture chamber. Since the gap distance between the glass pipe and the cell culture substrate corresponds to cell diameter, the collected cell suspension only contains single cells. We evaluated the capability of the developed cell suspension pumping system and the proliferation of the collected cells with C2C12 myoblast cells. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension was improved by up to 9.6% compared with that of suspensions collected by the control method (traditional pipetting). Moreover, after cultivating the collected cells for 72 hr, the cells collected by our method proliferated 13.6% more than those collected by the control method. These results suggest that the proposed method has great potential for improving the cultivation efficiency of adhesive cell culture.
Autors: Misa Nakao;Yuta Kurashina;Chikahiro Imashiro;Kenjiro Takemura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 224 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Measuring 3-D Surface Deformations With InSAR Based on Strain Model and Variance Component Estimation
Abstract:
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique is a proven technique for measuring 3-D surface deformations by combining InSAR measurements from different techniques (i.e., differential InSAR, multiaperture InSAR, and pixel offset-tracking) and different tracks (i.e., ascending and descending) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. However, it is difficult to obtain the exact a priori variances or weights for such different kinds of InSAR measurements, resulting in inaccurate estimations of 3-D deformations. This paper proposes a method to retrieve 3-D deformations with InSAR by integrating the strain model and variance component estimation algorithm, which can exploit the spatial correlation of the adjacent points’ deformations and produce accurate weights for multiple InSAR measurements. The proposed method is assessed with both simulated and real data sets. The results have shown that the proposed method can accurately measure 3-D surface deformations associated with geohazards, and even those occurring in a transient or short-term period (e.g., earthquake and volcanic eruption). In the case study of the 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano (Hawai’i), improvements of 51.2%, 22.4%, and 18.5% have been achieved for the derived east, north, and up displacements, respectively, with respect to those derived from the classical weighted least squares method.
Autors: Ji-Hong Liu;Jun Hu;Zhi-Wei Li;Jian-Jun Zhu;Qian Sun;Jie Gan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 239 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method to Realize Robust Flexible Electronically Tunable Antennas Using Polymer-Embedded Conductive Fabric
Abstract:
A new approach to realize robust, flexible, and electronically tunable wearable antennas is presented. Conductive fabric is used to form the conducting parts of the antenna on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Then the antenna and the lumped (active and passive) elements, required for electronic tuning and RF choking, are fully encapsulated with additional layers of PDMS. As a concept demonstration, a new frequency-reconfigurable antenna has been designed and fabricated. The details of the prototype manufacturing process are described. Two UWB human muscle equivalent phantoms were also fabricated for testing purposes. Furthermore, the antenna was subjected to several investigations on its RF performance (both in free space and on a flat phantom) and mechanical stability. The latter includes bending tests on several locations on a human-body shaped phantom and washing in a household washing machine. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results (both in free space and on the phantom) is observed, validating the proposed concept. The tests demonstrated that lumped components and other antenna parts remained intact and in working order even under extreme bending (to a bending radius of 28 mm) and after washing, thus maintaining the overall antenna performance including good frequency reconfigurability from 2.3 to 2.68 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, all these features have never been demonstrated in previously published electronically tunable antennas.
Autors: Roy B. V. B. Simorangkir;Yang Yang;Karu P. Esselle;Basit A. Zeb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 50 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Methodological Approach to Model-Driven Design and Development of Automation Systems
Abstract:
The growing complexity of industrial automation demands the adoption of software engineering principles for improving the development process of control systems. This paper presents a methodological approach to the design and development of complex automation systems relying on model-driven engineering (MDE). A benefit of this approach is the integration of methods and techniques widespread within the automation discipline with modern MDE techniques guiding the designer through the development phases. A second advantage is to add flexibility enough to adapt the steps to the needs of the system under design. Finally, the architecture presented is prepared to be adapted to methodology extensions to cover other aspects of automation systems. The framework is based on domain models that are defined through the development phases using the terminology of the automation field. Using model transformations both documentation about system analysis and design and the skeleton of software units are automatically generated. A proof-of-concept tool has been developed that has been tested on the design of medium-complexity projects to assess the impact of its use with respect to project documentation and maintenance.

Note to Practitioners—Control software development can be considered one of the challenges in automation field for achieving leadership in the future economic market. This work presents a model-driven engineering-based approach making use of both automation and software engineering methods and techniques for developing automation control systems. The framework implements the methodology for industrial automation systems () for guiding developers through the development phases and generates the analysis and design documentation using domain terminology, the design documentation that involves the minimal units of design, and the pro- ram organization units in one-to-one correspondence with the minimal units of design. From a practical point of view, it should be highly emphasized that developers of automation projects benefit from more structured designs, reduced number of errors, and improved project documentation.

Autors: María Luz Alvarez;Isabel Sarachaga;Arantzazu Burgos;Elisabet Estévez;Marga Marcos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 67 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Frequency Domain Condition for the Physical Realizability of Linear Quantum Stochastic Systems
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with a modified version of the frequency domain physical realizability (PR) condition for linear quantum systems. We consider open quantum systems whose dynamic variables satisfy the canonical commutation relations of an open quantum harmonic oscillator and are governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs). In order to correspond to physical quantum systems, these QSDEs must satisfy PR conditions. We provide a relatively simple proof that the PR condition is equivalent to the frequency domain -unitarity of the input–output transfer function and orthogonality of the feedthrough matrix of the system without the technical spectral assumptions required in previous work. We also show that the poles and transmission zeros associated with the transfer function of PR linear quantum systems are the mirror reflections of each other about the imaginary axis. An example is provided to illustrate the results.
Autors: Arash Kh. Sichani;Ian R. Petersen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 277 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified S-Transform and Random Forests-Based Power Quality Assessment Framework
Abstract:
The proposed work aims at the accurate detection and classification of various single and multiple power quality (PQ) disturbances. To this end, a modified optimal fast discrete Stockwell transform (ST) with random forests (RF) classifier-based PQ detection framework has been proposed in this paper. In modified ST, a single signal-dependent window is introduced, with optimally selected window parameters via energy concentration maximization based constraint optimization. As a result of which accurate time-frequency localization of various PQ events is achieved, with sharper energy concentration. In classification stage, the proposed PQ framework utilizes the RF-based classifier, which follows the bagging approach by random selection of features and data points, at each node, to train the classifier. Decision stumps are used as weak classifiers, and using a simple majority voting of these decision stumps, RF builds a strong classifier. The RF gives less variance and less bias estimation due to injection of randomness into the training phase, and its performance is found to be reasonably immune to input parameter selection. As a result of this, the classification results of the proposed PQ framework are found to be very accurate and quite insensitive to the presence of noise in the data. Various test cases are presented in this paper to clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme. The proposed approach has also been tested on real field data and very promising results have been obtained.
Autors: Motakatla Venkateswara Reddy;Ranjana Sodhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 78 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Monolithically Integrated Large-Scale Optical Phased Array in Silicon-on-Insulator CMOS
Abstract:
A large-scale monolithic silicon nanophotonic phased array on a chip creates and dynamically steers a high-resolution optical beam in free space, enabling emerging applications in sensing, imaging, and communication. The scalable architecture leverages sub-array structure, mitigating the impact of process variation on the phased array performance. In addition, sharing control electronics among multiple optical modulators in the scalable architecture reduces the number of digital-to-analog converters (DACs) required for an array from to , allowing a small silicon footprint. An optical phased array for 1550-nm wavelength with 1024 uniformly spaced optical grating antennas, 1192 optical variable phase shifters, and 168 optical variable attenuators is integrated into a 5.7 mm 6.4 mm chip in a commercial 180-nm silicon-on-insulator RF CMOS technology. The control signals for the optical variable phase shifters and attenuators are provided by 136 DACs with 14-bit nonuniform resolution using 2.5-V input-output transistors. The implemented phased array can create 0.03° narrow optical beams that can be steered unambiguously within ±22.5°.
Autors: SungWon Chung;Hooman Abediasl;Hossein Hashemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 275 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Motion Planning Strategy for the Active Vision-Based Mapping of Ground-Level Structures
Abstract:
This paper presents a strategy to guide a mobile ground robot equipped with a camera or depth sensor, in order to autonomously map the visible part of a bounded 3-D structure. We describe motion planning algorithms that determine appropriate successive viewpoints and attempt to fill holes automatically in a point cloud produced by the sensing and perception layer. The emphasis is on accurately reconstructing a 3-D model of a structure of moderate size rather than mapping large open environments, with applications for example in architecture, construction, and inspection. The proposed algorithms do not require any initialization in the form of a mesh model or a bounding box, and the paths generated are well adapted to situations where the vision sensor is used simultaneously for mapping and for localizing the robot, in the absence of additional absolute positioning system. We analyze the coverage properties of our policy, and compare its performance with the classic frontier-based exploration algorithm. We illustrate its efficacy for different structure sizes, levels of localization accuracy, and range of the depth sensor, and validate our design on a real-world experiment. Note to Practitioners—The objective of this paper is to automate the process of building a 3-D model of a structure of interest that is as complete as possible, using a mobile camera or depth sensor, in the absence of any prior information about this structure. Given that increasingly robust solutions for the visual simultaneous localization and mapping problem are now readily available, the key challenge that we address here is to develop motion planning policies to control the trajectory of the sensor in a way that improves the mapping performance. We target in particular scenarios where no external absolute positioning system is available, such as mapping certain indoor environments where GPS signals are blocked. In this case, it is often important to revisi- previously seen locations relatively quickly, in order to avoid excessive drift in the dead-reckoning localization system. Our system works by first determining the boundaries of the structure, before attempting to fill the holes in the constructed model. Its performance is illustrated through simulations, and a real-world experiment performed with a depth sensor carried by a mobile manipulator.
Autors: Manikandasriram Srinivasan Ramanagopal;André Phu-Van Nguyen;Jerome Le Ny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 356 - 368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Chain Merged Tapped Delay Line for High Precision Time-to-Digital Converters in FPGAs
Abstract:
Field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converters (TDCs) use a tapped delay line (TDL) for time interpolation to yield a sub-clock time resolution. The granularity and uniformity of delay cells in TDL determines achievable TDC time precision. To gain small delay cells in TDL, we propose a new TDL architecture by merging multiple conventional delay chains to obtain very fine intrinsic cell delays. The uniformity of these cell delays is improved by a bin decimation method so that the time interpolation with the TDL has minimum nonlinearity error. To evaluate the performance improvement using the new TDL architecture, two identical TDC channels with 1-chain, 2-chain, and 4-chain merged TDLs, respectively, were implemented in a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA. For time-intervals in the range from 0 to 50 ns, the average RMS precisions of these TDC pairs were measured as 8.5 ps, 5.3 ps, and 4.3 ps, respectively. The test results confirm that the proposed TDL architecture is an FPGA-independent effective method for boosting TDC precision without significant increase in hardware complexity and logic resource consumption.
Autors: Yonggang Wang;Qiang Cao;Chong Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 96 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Class Tactile Brain–Computer Interface Based on Stimulus-Induced Oscillatory Dynamics
Abstract:
We proposed a multi-class tactile brain–computer interface that utilizes stimulus-induced oscillatory dynamics. It was hypothesized that somatosensory attention can modulate tactile-induced oscillation changes, which can decode different sensation attention tasks. Subjects performed four tactile attention tasks, prompted by cues presented in random order and while both wrists were simultaneously stimulated: 1) selective sensation on left hand (SS-L); 2) selective sensation on right hand (SS-R); 3) bilateral selective sensation; and 4) selective sensation suppressed or idle state (SS-S). The classification accuracy between SS-L and SS-R (79.9 ± 8.7%) was comparable with that of a previous tactile BCI system based on selective sensation. Moreover, the accuracy could be improved to an average of 90.3 ± 4.9% by optimal class-pair and frequency-band selection. Three-class discrimination had an accuracy of 75.2 ± 8.3%, with the best discrimination reached for the classes SS-L, SS-R, and SS-S. Finally, four classes were classified with an accuracy of 59.4 ± 7.3%. These results show that the proposed system is a promising new paradigm for multi-class BCI.
Autors: Lin Yao;Mei Lin Chen;Xinjun Sheng;Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting;Xiangyang Zhu;Dario Farina;Ning Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 3 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multicommodity Flow-Based Detailed Router With Efficient Acceleration Techniques
Abstract:
Detailed routing is an important stage in very large scale integrated physical design. Due to the extreme scaling of transistor feature size and the complicated design rules, ensuring routing completion without design rule checking (DRC) violations becomes more and more difficult. Studies have shown that the low routing quality partly results from nonoptimal net-ordering nature of traditional sequential methods. The concurrent routing strategy is always based on an NP-hard model, thus is at a disadvantage in runtime. In this paper, we present a novel concurrent detailed routing algorithm that routes all nets simultaneously. Based on the multicommodity flow model, detailed routing problem with complex design rule constraints is formulated as an integer linear programming. Some model simplification heuristics and efficient model solving algorithms are proposed to improve the runtime. Experimental results show that, the proposed algorithms can reduce the DRC violations by 80%, meanwhile can reduce wirelength and via count by 5% and 8% compared with an industry tool. In addition, the proposed algorithm is general that it can be adopted as an incremental detailed router to refine a routing solution, so the number of DRC violations that industry tool cannot fix are further reduced by 27%.
Autors: Xiaotao Jia;Yici Cai;Qiang Zhou;Bei Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 217 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multistandard Method of Network Analyzer Self-Calibration—Generalization of Multiline TRL
Abstract:
This paper presents a statistical self-calibration procedure for two-port vector network analyzers (VNAs). It is a generalization of the Multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method and allows to combine the information of multiple A-standards, which can be realized by any matched networks. Moreover, the reflect standard is replaced by a more general network standard as a symmetrical network that may have nonzero transmission. In consequence, this method offers more flexibility in the choice of calibration standards and an extended bandwidth especially toward lower frequencies. At the same time, the improved accuracy over conventional methods persists, as well as the simple implementation, avoiding iterative solutions. The presented error analysis yields some new insights on the choice of calibration standards. In addition, a method is provided to modify the performed weighting of the information of different standards.
Autors: Bernd Hofmann;Stephan Kolb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 245 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nano-Watt MOS-Only Voltage Reference With High-Slope PTAT Voltage Generators
Abstract:
This brief presents an MOS-only voltage reference circuit with high-slope proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltage generators for ultra-low-power applications. Biased by a nano-ampere current reference circuit, the PTAT voltage generator is realized by an asymmetrical differential cell with two additional cross-coupled nMOS/pMOS pairs, which enhance the slope of the PTAT voltage remarkably. As a result, only two cascaded PTAT stages are used to compensate the complementary-to-absolute-temperature voltage generated directly by a diode-connected nMOS in the current reference circuit. Therefore, much power and chip area can be saved. A trimming circuit is also adopted to compensate the process-related reference voltage variations. The experimental results of the proposed reference circuit fabricated in a 0.18- m standard CMOS process demonstrate that the circuit could operate under a minimum supply voltage of 1 V, and generate a reference voltage of 756 mV with temperature coefficient of 74 and 49.6 ppm/°C under 1-V and 1.8-V power supply, respectively. The proposed circuit consumes only 23 nA under a 1-V power supply, and the active area is only 95 .
Autors: Hong Zhang;Xipeng Liu;Jie Zhang;Hongshuai Zhang;Jijun Li;Ruizhi Zhang;Shuai Chen;Anthony Chan Carusone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Amplification Regime for Traveling Wave Tubes With Third-Order Modal Degeneracy
Abstract:
Engineering of the eigenmode dispersion of slow wave structures (SWSs) to achieve desired modal characteristics is an effective approach to enhance the performance of high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers or oscillators. We investigate here for the first time a new synchronization regime in TWTs based on SWSs operating near a third-order degeneracy condition in their dispersion. This special three-eigenmode synchronization is associated with a stationary inflection point (SIP) that is manifested by the coalescence of three Floquet-Bloch eigenmodes in the SWS. We demonstrate the special features of “cold” (without electron beam) periodic SWSs with SIP modeled as coupled transmission lines and investigate resonances of SWSs of finite length. We also show that by tuning parameters of a periodic SWS, one can achieve an SIP with nearly ideal flat dispersion relationship with zero group velocity or a slightly slanted one with a very small (positive or negative) group velocity leading to different operating schemes. The SIP structure when synchronized with an electron beam has potential benefits for amplification which include: 1) gain enhancement; 2) gain-bandwidth product improvement; and 3) higher power efficiency, when compared to conventional Pierce-like TWTs. The proposed theory paves the way for a new approach for potential improvements in gain, power efficiency, and gain-bandwidth product in high-power microwave amplifiers.
Autors: Farshad Yazdi;Mohamed A. K. Othman;Mehdi Veysi;Alexander Figotin;Filippo Capolino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 43 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach to Track Multiple Vehicles With the Combination of Robust Detection and Two Classifiers
Abstract:
It plays an important role to accurately track multiple vehicles in intelligent transportation, especially in intelligent vehicles. Due to complicated traffic environments it is difficult to track multiple vehicles accurately and robustly, especially when there are occlusions among vehicles. To alleviate these problems, a new approach is proposed to track multiple vehicles with the combination of robust detection and two classifiers. An improved ViBe algorithm is proposed for robust and accurate detection of multiple vehicles. It uses the gray-scale spatial information to build dictionary of pixel life length to make ghost shadows and object’s residual shadows quickly blended into the samples of the background. The improved algorithm takes good post-processing method to restrain dynamic noise. In this paper, we also design a method using two classifiers to further attack the problem of failure to track vehicles with occlusions and interference. It classifies tracking rectangles with confidence values between two thresholds through combining local binary pattern with support vector machine (SVM) classifier and then using a convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for the second time to remove the interference areas between vehicles and other moving objects. The two classifiers method has both time efficiency advantage of SVM and high accuracy advantage of CNN. Comparing with several existing methods, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of our experiment results showed that the proposed method not only effectively removed the ghost shadows, and improved the detection accuracy and real-time performance, but also was robust to deal with the occlusion of multiple vehicles in various traffic scenes.
Autors: Weidong Min;Mengdan Fan;Xiaoguang Guo;Qing Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 174 - 186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine
Abstract:
This paper presents a new axial flux permanent magnet machine, named ring winding axial flux machine (AFM). The ring winding AFM (RWAFM) takes the advantage of segmented stator of yokeless and segmented armature topology with those of decoupled phases and ring winding of transverse flux topology. In this paper, the geometry of the RWAFM is introduced in detail. Furthermore, the working principle and torque production theory are discussed. To validate the concept and confirm manufacturability of the proposed topology, a prototype is fabricated. The performance of the RWAFM is studied through experimental tests, 3-D finite-element simulations, and analytical discussions.
Autors: Pourya Ojaghlu;Aboalfazl Vahedi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Heuristic for $N$ -Dimensional Nearest Neighbor Realization of a Quantum Circuit
Abstract:
One of the main challenges in quantum computing is to ensure error-free operation of the basic quantum gates. There are various implementation technologies of quantum gates for which the distance between interacting qubits must be kept within a limit for reliable operation. This leads to the so-called requirement of neighborhood arrangements of the interacting qubits, often referred to as nearest neighbor (NN) constraint. This is typically achieved by inserting SWAP gates in the quantum circuits, where a SWAP gate between two qubits exchanges their states. Minimizing the number of SWAP gates to provide NN compliance is an important problem to solve. A number of approaches have been proposed in this regard, based on local and global ordering techniques. In this paper, a generalized approach for combined local and global ordering of qubits have been proposed that is based on an improved heuristic for cost estimation and is also scalable. The approach can be extended to -dimensional arrangement of qubits, for any arbitrary values of . Practical constraints, however, restrict the maximum value of to 3. Extensive experiments on benchmark functions have been carried out to evaluate the performance in terms of SWAP gate requirements. 3-D organization of qubits shows average reductions of 6.7% and 37.4%, respectively, in the number of SWAP gates over 2-D and 1-D organizations. Also compared to the best 2-D and 1-D results reported in the literature, on the average 8.7% and 8.4% reductions, respectively, are observed.
Autors: Abhoy Kole;Kamalika Datta;Indranil Sengupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 182 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Iron Loss Model for Temperature Dependencies of Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses in Electrical Machines
Abstract:
In this paper, the different temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses of non-oriented Si-steel laminations are investigated. The measured iron loss results show that both the hysteresis and eddy current losses vary linearly with temperature between 40 °C to 100 °C, a typical temperature range of electrical machines. Varying rates of hysteresis and eddy current losses with the temperature are different and fluctuate with flux density and frequency. Based on this, an improved iron loss model which can consider temperature dependencies of hysteresis and eddy current losses separately is developed. Based on the improved iron loss model, the temperature influence on the iron loss can be fully considered by measuring iron losses at only two different temperatures. The investigation is experimentally validated by both the tests based on a ring specimen and an electrical machine.
Autors: Shaoshen Xue;Jianghua Feng;Shuying Guo;Jun Peng;W. Q. Chu;Z. Q. Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New LDPC Coded Scheme for Two-User Gaussian Multiple Access Channels
Abstract:
We propose a new low-density parity-check coded scheme for two-user Gaussian multiple access channels (GMACs) with equal rate and equal average power constraints. In the proposed scheme, we divide a code word into two parts with equal length and transmit them by using BPSK signals with two power levels. Two users use the two power levels alternatively to avoid ambiguity problem in two-user GMACs. We optimize the ratio between the two power levels to minimize the required average signal-to-noise ratio for a given rate. We also design a joint decoding algorithm for our proposed scheme. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme has a better bit error rate performance, compared with the existing schemes.
Autors: Junyi Du;Liang Zhou;Lei Yang;Shenglong Peng;Jinhong Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 22, issue:1, pages: 21 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Phenomenon in Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches
Abstract:
A new oscillational phenomenon has been found in high-biased semi-insulating (SI) 4H-SiC photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) with high densities of vanadium and nitrogen dopants, and this oscillational phenomenon has no relationship with the laser wavelength, bias voltage, the charge capacitor, and the shape/size of the 4H-SiC PCSS. This paper shows that the photo activated charge domain theory in SI GaAs PCSS may explain this phenomenon. Due to the high densities of vanadium and nitrogen dopants, the intervalley scattering may occur in the 4H-SiC PCSS, and the space charge field region will appear in the 4H-SiC PCSS for the electrons accumulation. This region looks upon an equivalent capacitor, when the accumulation of the electrons is over, the equivalent capacitor will discharge, and the oscillational phenomenon appears.
Autors: Chongbiao Luan;Boting Li;Juan Zhao;Jinshui Xiao;Xun Ma;Hongtao Li;Yupeng Huang;Longfei Xiao;Xiangang Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 172 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Pseudo Load Profile Determination Approach in Low Voltage Distribution Networks
Abstract:
Low voltage (LV) state estimation in distribution networks mainly relies on pseudo measurements because the real-time monitoring is impossible for all customers. This paper presents a new method to determine the pseudo load profiles (PLPs) of customers with small consumptions connected to the LV distribution networks. This method is comprised of two stages. First, a new frequency-based clustering algorithm is proposed to extract the essential load patterns of limited number of customers who are equipped by smart meters and are called as sample customers. The superior performance of the proposed clustering algorithm is also shown in comparison with three of the most widely used clustering methods: k-means, self-organizing maps and hierarchical algorithms. In the second stage, a new approach is proposed to estimate the daily energy consumptions two weeks ahead for other customers who are not equipped by smart meters by using their previous billing cycle energy consumptions and the load data of sample customers. The PLP of a customer is obtained by multiplying the estimated daily energy consumption by the corresponding normalized load pattern. Studies have been conducted on the data of a real distribution system to verify the proposed method and to show its application for the PLP estimation of distribution networks.
Autors: Yaser Raeisi Gahrooei;Amin Khodabakhshian;Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 463 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nitrided Interfacial Oxide for Interface State Improvement in Hafnium Zirconium Oxide-Based Ferroelectric Transistor Technology
Abstract:
We examine the nature of the interface states induced during the integration of ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide on silicon. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-silicon capacitors, with a thin layer of hafnium zirconium oxide grown by atomic layer deposition as the ferroelectric and various interfacial oxide layers as the insulator, are investigated. Since a high-temperature post-annealing is necessary to induce the formation of the ferroelectric phase in this oxide stack, the integrity of the oxide/silicon interface must be preserved after high-temperature processing. As such, we show that a nitrided interlayer provides an improved midgap interface state density among all interfacial oxides investigated. Furthermore, we quantify the interface states using the ac conductance technique and model the interface trap distribution across the silicon bandgap in order to explain and verify the experimental measurements.
Autors: Ava J. Tan;Ajay K. Yadav;Korok Chatterjee;Daewoong Kwon;Sangwan Kim;Chenming Hu;Sayeef Salahuddin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 95 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise Reconfigurable All-Digital Phase-Locked Loop Using a Switched Capacitor-Based Frequency-Locked Loop and a Noise Detector
Abstract:
Programmability is one of the most significant advantages of a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) compared with a charge-pump PLL. In this paper, a digital PLL that extends programmability to include noise is introduced. A digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) using a switched capacitor for frequency feedback is proposed to maintain a constant figure of merit while reconfiguring its noise performance. The proposed DCO offers an accurate and linear frequency tuning curve that is insensitive to environmental changes. A noise detection circuit using the statistical property of a bang-bang phase and frequency detector is proposed to autonomously adjust the output noise level depending on the noise specification. A prototype design is fabricated in a 28-nm FDSOI process. The integrated phase noise of the proposed PLL can be configured from 2.5 to 15 ps, while the power consumption ranges from 1.7 to 5 mW.
Autors: Taekwang Jang;Seokhyeon Jeong;Dongsuk Jeon;Kyojin David Choo;Dennis Sylvester;David Blaauw;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 50 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise-Shaped Randomized Modulation for Switched-Mode DC-DC Converters
Abstract:
We propose a novel low-harmonics low-noise modulation scheme for switched-mode dc–dc converters. The proposed scheme is a hybrid of a randomized modulation scheme, namely, the randomized wrapped-around pulse position modulation scheme (RWAPPM), and a noise-shaper. The RWAPPM mitigates the switching-frequency harmonics in the input current, whereas the noise-shaper mitigates the low-frequency noise therein. We derive an analytical expression for the input current spectrum of the hybrid scheme. We benchmark the hybrid scheme against the conventional pulse width modulation scheme (PWM) and the RWAPPM without the noise-shaper. At 0.5 duty cycle, 3.3-V input voltage, 100-kHz average switching frequency, and with the second-order noise-shaper, the peak spectral power in the input current spectrum of the hybrid scheme is 18.1 dB lower than the PWM. Other randomized and spread-spectrum modulation schemes, in general, have undesirably higher input noise current than that of the PWM. However, the input noise current of the proposed hybrid scheme, obtained at ~73-mA rms (integrated over a 200-kHz bandwidth without an input filter), is comparable with that of the PWM, and is lower by ~16-mA rms compared with that of the RWAPPM without the noise-shaper. We also benchmark the hybrid scheme against other well known randomized and spread-spectrum modulation schemes. We further propose a novel pulse generator structure that embodies the hybrid scheme. We realize a dc–dc converter employing the pulse generator, and measure the converter to verify the derived expression and the characteristics of the hybrid scheme. We also measure the output voltage spectrum, the transient-response, and the operating range of the converter.
Autors: Keer Cui;Victor Adrian;Bah-Hwee Gwee;Joseph S. Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 394 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise-Tolerant Algorithm for Robot-Sensor Calibration Using a Planar Disk of Arbitrary 3-D Orientation
Abstract:
In a 3-D scanning task, a robot-sensor system controls a robotic arm to move a laser sensor. In order to align the coordinate system of the robotic arm and laser sensor, prior calibration is required to derive the transformation between both coordinate systems. This paper proposes a new calibration method in three steps: manual data collection, sensing data calculation, and transformation solution. First, at least four data are required to be collected by the user. The sensing data are then calculated from the collected data and adopted to provide the desired transformation. The proposed algorithm has two features: arbitrary placement of planar disk and noise tolerant. Using a planar disk, the algorithm will automatically derive the angular relationship between the disk and the sensor plane, enabling arbitrary orientation placement. Noise tolerant is guaranteed by fitting ellipses during the sensing data calculation and using a single set of sensing data in transformation solution. Experiments and comparisons are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed calibration algorithm.

Note to Practitioners—This paper was motivated by the problem of calibrating a laser sensor and a positioning device (robot arm, CMM, etc.) in a robust and fast manner. Specifically, the calibration is to derive the transformation by aligning the sensors coordinate system to the positioning devices coordinate system. The proposed calibration procedure consists of two parts: manual data collection and automatic transformation calculation. During manual data collection, users only need to select four different data; whereby each data contains of two positions with the same orientation. Then, the desired transformation will be derived automatically. The calibration is designed in an efficient and robust way whereby: 1) data collection is done using a simple planar disk placed in arbitrary orientations; 2) minimum human i- teraction required; 3) tolerant to noise in the sensor data; and 4) easy implementation by following a proven and standard protocol.

Autors: Wenyu Chen;Jia Du;Wei Xiong;Yue Wang;Shueching Chia;Bingbing Liu;Jierong Cheng;Ying Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 251 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 1-D Convolution Neural Network With SVM Architecture for Real-Time Detection Applications
Abstract:
To enhance the performance and sensitivity of continuous monitoring systems for detection of chronic diseases, selection of optimal machine learning algorithms is pivotal. Presently, the commonly used algorithms face constraints, such as high computational cost and lack of optimal feature selection on application to real time signals thereby reducing the efficiency of such analysis. Deep learning approaches, such as the convolution neural network, overcome these drawbacks by calculating automated features from raw signal and classifying the derived features. This architecture shows good merits. However, the use of fully connected multi-layer perceptron algorithms have shown low classification performance. This paper proposes to develop a modified deep learning convolution neural network algorithm integrated with support vector machines to address the drawbacks present in multi-layer perceptron and thereby improving the overall performance of real-time detection applications. The system is validated on real-time breath signals for non-invasive detection of diabetes. The performance of this proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with the existing technique.
Autors: S. Lekha;M. Suchetha;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 724 - 731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 2.6–6.4 GHz Highly Integrated Broadband GaN Power Amplifier
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel methodology to achieve output broadband matching is proposed. Based on this methodology, a broadband gallium nitride power amplifier (PA) with input matching and stabilization circuit integrated on-chip is designed. The implemented PA achieves a maximum drain efficiency of 62%–79.2% from 2.6 to 6.4 GHz (84.4% fractional bandwidth), with a saturated output power (Psat) of 34.3–35.8 dBm, while providing a gain larger than 10 dB. When tested with 802.11ac VHT80 MC9 (80 MHz, 256-QAM) with 11.3-dB peak-to-average power ratio, PA achieves a drain efficiency of 22.1%–25.2% with an average output power of 23–25.4 dBm across the whole band, while meeting the standard specification of error vector magnitude below −32 dB.
Autors: Bei Liu;Mengda Mao;Devrishi Khanna;Chirn-Chye Boon;Pilsoon Choi;Eugene A. Fitzgerald;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 37 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 28 GHz Beam Steering Array for 5G Mobile Device With Metallic Casing Application
Abstract:
The design of a novel practical 28 GHz beam steering phased array antenna for future fifth generation mobile device applications is presented in this communication. The proposed array antenna has 16 cavity-backed slot antenna elements that are implemented via the metallic back casing of the mobile device, in which two eight-element phased arrays are built on the left- and right-side edges of the mobile device. Each eight-element phased array can yield beam steering at broadside and gain of >15 dBi can be achieved at boresight. The measured 10 dB return loss bandwidth of the proposed cavity-backed slot antenna element was approximately 27.5–30 GHz. In addition, the impacts of user’s hand effects are also investigated.
Autors: Bin Yu;Kang Yang;Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim;Guangli Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 462 - 466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach for Spectroscopic Chemical Identification Using Photonic Crystal Fiber in the Terahertz Regime
Abstract:
A novel highly sensitive porous core-photonic crystal fiber (PC-PCF) has been designed and analyzed for detection of chemical analytes in the terahertz frequency range. The PC-PCF is designed using rectangular structured air holes in the core with a kagome structured cladding. The full vectorial finite-element method is used to tune the geometrical parameters and to characterize the fiber. Our results demonstrate a high relative chemical sensitivity with significantly lower confinement loss for different analytes. Moreover, the PCF shows near zero dispersion variation, high modal effective area, high birefringence, and high numerical aperture. The practical realization of the fiber is feasible with present fabrication techniques. Our optimized PCF has commercial applications in chemical sensing as well as applications in terahertz systems that require guided polarization preserving transmission.
Autors: Md. Saiful Islam;Jakeya Sultana;Kawsar Ahmed;Mohammad Rakibul Islam;Alex Dinovitser;Brian Wai-Him Ng;Derek Abbott;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 575 - 582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach of Fuzzy Dempster–Shafer Theory for Spatial Uncertainty Analysis and Accuracy Assessment of Object-Based Image Classification
Abstract:
Accuracy assessment is a fundamental step in remote-sensing image processing. The accuracy assessment techniques aim to compute classification accuracy and characterize errors, and can, thus, be used to refine the classification or estimates derived from the assessment itself. With regard to their technical capabilities, these techniques have been criticized for their inherent uncertainty and inability to evaluate image classification accuracies. To overcome this issue, the main objective of this letter was to introduce a new approach for the accuracy assessment of object-based image analysis (OBIA). To this end, an integrated approach of fuzzy synthetic evaluation and Dempster–Shafer theory (FSE-DST) was adapted and proposed as an effective approach for object-based image classification accuracy assessment. Two experiments were established to examine the capability of the proposed approach. OBIA was applied to develop a land-use land-cover map of Ahar city and the Ousko area. The proposed FSE-DST was applied for a spatially explicit accuracy assessment. Results indicate that FSE-DST can be effectively applied in spatial accuracy assessments for OBIA and for spatial accuracy assessments in remote-sensing-based classifications. The results of this letter are important to the development of OBIA and can serve as the basis for progressive research in remote sensing by supporting future researchers in obtaining more accurate results from OBIA-based classifications and spatially analyzing the reliability of results.
Autors: Bakhtiar Feizizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 18 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Improve the Performance of Charge Plasma Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor
Abstract:
A distinct approach is presented for realizing charge plasma tunnel field-effect transistor (CP TFET) wherein p+ substrate is taken as silicon film and then metal electrodes with specific work functions are deposited over the silicon film to accumulate n+ drain and intrinsic channel regions. This creates abruptness and reduces the barrier at the source/channel interface of CP TFET, which improves the dc characteristics of the device. Furthermore, the drain electrode is separated into two sections and applied with dual work function, which reduces the ambipolar behavior, parasitic capacitance, and enhances radio frequency parameters. The crux of the script is to advance the performance of the device while maintaining the classical CMOS fabrication flow with its inherent advantages by using p+ substrate initially. To analyze the performance, a comparison between conventional CP TFET and dual drain electrode CP TFET (proposed) is shown at the simulation level. Optimization of length and workfunction of the section of drain electrode adjacent to the channel is demonstrated to assess the desired ON-current and ambipolarity of the device. Furthermore, the device performance is examined with the application of multigate work function and heterogate dielectric engineering to achieve more improvements in device performance.
Autors: Sukeshni Tirkey;Dheeraj Sharma;Bhagwan Ram Raad;Dharmendra Singh Yadav;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 282 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Coupling Algorithm for Perfectly Matched Layer With Wave Equation-Based Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Method
Abstract:
The second-order wave equation-based discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) methods typically employ the first-order absorbing boundary condition for modeling open problems. To improve the modeling accuracy, this paper proposes a novel coupling algorithm of the well-posed perfectly matched layer (PML) for wave equation-based DGTD methods. Based on the domain decomposition technique, the proposed coupling algorithm divides the computational domain into two regions, that is, the physical and PML regions, whose meshes can be nonconformal with each other. Instead of introducing time convolution terms, the new coupling scheme is implemented through employing different DGTD frameworks for the two regions. Specifically, the physical region employs the wave equation-based DGTD framework, while the PML region employs the first-order Maxwell’s curl equations-based DGTD framework. To facilitate modeling of electrically small problems, the implicit Newmark-beta time integration is used for the physical region. To conveniently couple with the physical region, the implicit Crank–Nicolson algorithm is used for the PML region. Numerical results are shown to examine the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed coupling algorithm for modeling electrically small problems.
Autors: Qingtao Sun;Runren Zhang;Qiwei Zhan;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 255 - 261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Design of Dual-Band Rat-Race Coupler With Reconfigurable Power-Dividing Ratio
Abstract:
This letter presents, for the first time, the design of a reconfigurable rat-race coupler with dual-band operation. This device can offer power-dividing ratio of or at two different frequency bands. The proposed design also features low insertion loss, high port isolation, compact size, single control voltage, and minimal number of RF switches. For demonstration, both simulation and measured results of a 0.9-/2-GHz reconfigurable rat-race coupler implemented on microstrip are given.
Autors: Li-Peng Cai;Kwok-Keung M. Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 16 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Extended State Observer for Output Tracking of MIMO Systems With Mismatched Uncertainty
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a novel extended state observer (ESO), in terms of tracking error only, for output tracking of a class of multi-input multioutput systems with mismatched uncertainty. A novel ESO is constructed from the nonsmooth function “ ” to estimate both uncertainty and state of the system. An ESO-based output feedback controller is then designed to compensate (cancel) the uncertainty and to achieve the output tracking. The convergence of the closed-loop system is proved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical results of trajectory tracking for a practical autonomous underwater vehicle model. We show that in the presence of measurement noise, this novel ESO leads to better performance than the linear ESO. Moreover, this type of ESO has much smaller peaking value than the linear ESO under the same tuning gain.
Autors: Zhi-Liang Zhao;Bao-Zhu Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 211 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fully Analog Null Instrument for Resistive Wheatstone Bridge With a Single Resistive Sensor
Abstract:
When high-speed measurements are not necessary, the Wheatstone bridge-based null measurement instruments surpass the Wheatstone Bridge-based instruments using deflection technique, due to the fact that the null method has some intrinsic advantages over the deflection method. In this particle, a fully analog method has been introduced in order to implement a null measurement instrument for a resistive Wheatstone bridge with a single resistive sensor. In order to implement the proposed circuit, only two operational amplifiers and some passive elements have been used. The proposed method can be constructed and implemented by discrete components without any special limitation. Since the suggested scheme has linear output, the required computation in order to measure and display the measurand is reduced dramatically. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance and usefulness of the proposed method, it has been tested experimentally as well as by using computer aided design software.
Autors: Emad Alnasser;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 635 - 640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fully Synthesizable All-Digital RF Transmitter for IoT Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a fully synthesizable all-digital transmitter (ADTX) is first proposed. This transmitter (TX) uses Cartesian architecture and supports wide-band quadratic-amplitude modulation with wide carrier frequency range. Furthermore, the design methodology for ADTX and corresponding bandpass filter is discussed. This TX is synthesized with digital register transfer level-graphic database system flow, and can be easily implemented in any standard CMOS technology. An exemplary TX is synthesized by TSMC 28-nm standard cell library with extremely small area (0.0009 mm2) and supports carrier frequency as high as 6 GHz with excellent error vector magnitude (<−30 dB). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work on a fully synthesizable design of RF transistors, allowing easy technology migration and portability.
Autors: Yilei Li;Kirti Dhwaj;Chien-Heng Wong;Yuan Du;Li Du;Yiwu Tang;Yiyu Shi;Tatsuo Itoh;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 146 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel High-Resolution Optical Instrument for Imaging Oceanic Bubbles
Abstract:
The formation of bubbles from breaking waves has a significant effect on air–sea gas transfer and aerosol production. Detailed data in situ about the bubble populations are required to understand these processes. However, these data are difficult to acquire because bubble populations are complex, spatially inhomogeneous, and short lived. This paper describes the design and development of a novel high-resolution underwater optical instrument for imaging oceanic bubbles at the sea. The instrument was successfully deployed in 2013 as part of the HiWINGS campaign in the North Atlantic Ocean. It contains a high-resolution machine vision camera, strobe flash unit to create a light sheet, and single board computer to control system operation. The instrument is shown to successfully detect bubbles of radii in the range 20–10 000 μm.
Autors: Raied Sarmad Al-Lashi;Steve R. Gunn;Eric G. Webb;Helen Czerski;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 43, issue:1, pages: 72 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Image Registration Method Based on Phase Correlation Using Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Mixture of Gaussian
Abstract:
Image registration is a critical process for the various applications in the remote sensing community, and its accuracy greatly affects the results of the subsequent applications. Image registration based on phase correlation has been widely concerned due to its robustness to gray differences and efficiency. After calculating the normalized cross-relation matrix , the most commonly used approach is fitting the 2-D phase plane that passes through the origin, but it needs to remove contaminated spectrum carefully and the corresponding parameters are empirical. In fact, the phase correlation matrix is rank one for a noise-free translation model. This property simplifies the matching problem to finding the best rank-one approximation of the normalized cross-relation matrix. We develop a novel algorithm that performs the rank-one matrix factorization on the phase correlation matrix by assuming its noise as mixture of Gaussian (MoG) distributions. The MoG model is a general approximator for any continuous distribution, and hence is able to model a wide range of noise distribution. The parameters of the MoG model can be evaluated under the framework of maximum likelihood estimation by using an expectation-maximization method, and the subspace is calculated with standard methods. The advantages of the algorithm, high accuracy, and robustness to aliasing, noise, gray difference, and occlusions are illustrated by a series of simulated and real-image experiments.
Autors: Yunyun Dong;Tengfei Long;Weili Jiao;Guojin He;Zhaoming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 446 - 460
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Markov-Based Temporal-SoC Analysis for Characterizing PEV Charging Demand
Abstract:
The integration of a massive number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into current power distribution networks brings direct challenges to network planning, control, and operation. To increase the PEV penetration level with minimal negative impact, the dynamical PEV travel behaviors and charging demand need to be better understood. This paper presents a Markov-based analytical approach for modeling PEV travel behaviors and charging demand. The travel behaviors of individual PEVs are expressed mathematically through Monte Carlo simulation considering two essential factors: temporal travel purposes and state of charge (SoC). Markov model and hidden Markov model (HMM) are adopted to explicitly formulate the probabilistic correlation between multiple PEV states and SoC ranges. This modeling approach provides an efficient and generic tool for analyzing PEV travel behaviors and charging demand based on available PEV statistics. The analytical model is further adopted in the impact assessment of two PEV normal charging scheduling strategies for a range of PEV penetration levels in an IEEE 53-bus test network with field data (network parameters and realistic PEV statistics). The results demonstrate the benefit of the proposed modeling approach in network analysis considering PEV integration.
Autors: Siyang Sun;Qiang Yang;Wenjun Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 156 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Model for Terrain Slope Estimation Using ICESat/GLAS Waveform Data
Abstract:
The accurate estimation of terrain slope is very important for accurately monitoring the elevation and mass changes of glacier using laser altimeter. In this paper, a novel physical model was proposed for accurately estimating within-footprint terrain slope. The new proposed model was built based on overlapping footprints of the geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) data, namely, using altitude angle, footprint size, shape, orientation, terrain aspect, and ground extent. Ground extent estimation models were established on the basis of linear regression analyses between: 1) GLAS-derived waveform extent and airborne topographic mapper (ATM)-derived ground extent and 2) GLAS-derived waveform width and ATM-derived ground extent, respectively. In addition, the terrain slopes estimated from the overlapping footprints were validated by ATM data and compared with the slopes calculated from surface elevations, i.e., from ASTER global digital elevation model (DEM) (GDEM) and GLAS elevation. Results showed that the accuracy of waveform width-predicted ground extents (, RMSE = 0.686 m, , and -value < 0.0001) is higher than that of waveform extent-predicted ground extents (, RMSE = 0.824 m, , and -value < 0.0001), which indicated that waveform width is more suitable for estimating ground extent. Slopes estimated from the new proposed model have a strong consistency with those calculated from ATM data (Corrco- f = 0.786, bias = 0.654°, SD = 1.368°, and RMSE = 1.452°). Additionally, results also indicated that the new proposed model performs much better than the methods based on ASTER GDEM and the GLAS surface elevation in estimating within-footprint terrain slope due to higher correlation, lower bias, standard deviation, and RMSE.
Autors: Sheng Nie;Cheng Wang;Pinliang Dong;Guicai Li;Xiaohuan Xi;Pu Wang;Xuebo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 217 - 227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Multi-Class EEG-Based Sleep Stage Classification System
Abstract:
Sleep stage classification is one of the most critical steps in effective diagnosis and the treatment of sleep-related disorders. Visual inspection undertaken by sleep experts is a time-consuming and burdensome task. A computer-assisted sleep stage classification system is thus essential for both sleep-related disorders diagnosis and sleep monitoring. In this paper, we propose a system to classify the wake and sleep stages with high rates of sensitivity and specificity. The EEG signals of 25 subjects with suspected sleep-disordered breathing, and the EEG signals of 20 healthy subjects from three data sets are used. Every EEG epoch is decomposed into eight subband epochs each of which has a frequency band pertaining to one EEG rhythm (i.e., delta, theta, alpha, sigma, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, or gamma 2). Thirteen features are extracted from each subband epoch. Therefore, 104 features are totally obtained for every EEG epoch. The Kruskal–Wallis test is used to examine the significance of the features. Non-significant features are discarded. The minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance feature selection algorithm is then used to eliminate redundant and irrelevant features. The features selected are classified by a random forest classifier. To set the system parameters and to evaluate the system performance, nested 5-fold cross-validation and subject cross-validation are performed. The performance of our proposed system is evaluated for different multi-class classification problems. The minimum overall accuracy rates obtained are 95.31% and 86.64% for nested 5-fold and subject cross-validation, respectively. The system performance is promising in terms of the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates compared with the ones of the state-of-the-art systems. The proposed system can be used in health care applications with the aim of improving sleep stage classification.
Autors: Pejman Memar;Farhad Faradji;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 84 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Transmission Scheme for the $K$ -User Broadcast Channel With Delayed CSIT
Abstract:
The state-dependent -user memoryless broadcast channel (BC) with state feedback is investigated. We propose a novel transmission scheme and derive its corresponding achievable rate region, which, compared with some general schemes that deal with feedback, has the advantage of being relatively simple and thus is easy to evaluate. In particular, we show that the proposed scheme achieves the capacity region of the symmetric erasure BC with an arbitrary input alphabet size. For the fading Gaussian BC, numerical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms existing schemes in terms of symmetric rate. Our analysis also proves its optimality at high signal-to-noise ratio, in terms of degrees of freedom.
Autors: Chao He;Sheng Yang;Pablo Piantanida;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 386 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Two-Stage Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier for Wireless Applications
Abstract:
Broadband and highly efficient amplifiers are of great interest in modern wireless communication systems. In this paper, we present a novel two-stage broadband Doherty power amplifier (DPA), which is able to maintain high efficiency at saturated output power and at backoff output power levels over a wide bandwidth. The amplifier uses a novel and simple approach to achieve bandwidth enhancement and at the same time uses a driver amplifier. We employ Klopfenstein taper to deliver wide bandwidth. The measurement results show that the proposed broadband two-stage DPA is able to deliver 31%–35% drain efficiency at 6-dB output power backoff while at the saturation it achieves 40%–55% drain efficiency over the designed bandwidth of 1.5 to 2.6 GHz. The amplifier can deliver above 35-dBm output power with substantial gain of around 20 dB. The proposed DPA is a promising candidate for wideband and high gain requirements in modern wireless systems.
Autors: Muhammad Saad Khan;Hongxin Zhang;Xueli Wang;Rahat Ullah;Ibrar Ahmad;Sulman Shahzad;Qasim Ali Arain;Muhammad Zahid Tunio;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 40 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Ultra-Lightweight Multiband Rectenna on Paper for RF Energy Harvesting in the Next Generation LTE Bands
Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel compact ultralightweight multiband RF energy harvester fabricated on a paper substrate. The proposed rectenna is designed to operate in all recently released LTE bands (range 0.79–0.96 GHz; 1.71–2.17 GHz; and 2.5–2.69 GHz). High compactness and ease of integration between antenna and rectifier are achieved by using a topology of nested annular slots. The proposed rectifier features an RF-to-dc conversion efficiency in the range of 5%–16% for an available input power of −20 dBm in all bands of interest, which increases up to 11%–30% at −15 dBm. The rectenna has been finally tested both in laboratory and in realistic scenarios featuring a superior performance to other state-of-the-art RF harvesters on flexible substrates.
Autors: Valentina Palazzi;Jimmy Hester;Jo Bito;Federico Alimenti;Christos Kalialakis;Ana Collado;Paolo Mezzanotte;Apostolos Georgiadis;Luca Roselli;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 366 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parametric Computational Model of the Action Potential of Pacemaker Cells
Abstract:
Objective: A flexible, efficient, and verifiable pacemaker cell model is essential to the design of real-time virtual hearts that can be used for closed-loop validation of cardiac devices. A new parametric model of pacemaker action potential is developed to address this need. Methods: The action potential phases are modeled using hybrid automaton with one piecewise-linear continuous variable. The model can capture rate-dependent dynamics, such as action potential duration restitution, conduction velocity restitution, and overdrive suppression by incorporating nonlinear update functions. Simulated dynamics of the model compared well with previous models and clinical data. Conclusion: The results show that the parametric model can reproduce the electrophysiological dynamics of a variety of pacemaker cells, such as sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, and the His-Purkinje system, under varying cardiac conditions. Significance: This is an important contribution toward closed-loop validation of cardiac devices using real-time heart models.
Autors: Weiwei Ai;Nitish D. Patel;Partha S. Roop;Avinash Malik;Sidharta Andalam;Eugene Yip;Nathan Allen;Mark L. Trew;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 123 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Part of the Energy "In Crowd": Changing People's Energy Behavior via Group-Based Approaches
Abstract:
One of the most critical and pressing solutions needed to address global climate change is the transition to secure, affordable, and sustainable-energy systems. This transition is usually considered a technological challenge because it involves the integration of renewable energy, a trend toward decentralizing energy generation, and more demandside participation. However, involving consumers in the transition is crucial for its success. For example, sustainable-energy transitions may require consumers to adopt sustainable-energy sources, technologies, and energy-efficiency measures as well as change their direct and indirect energy use behaviors to the limited and fluctuating supply of (renewable) energy. However, such behaviors may not always be easy for consumers to adopt, as they can entail personal sacrifice and discomfort or require them to change habits or infrastructure, which can be cognitively and financially demanding. To guarantee a sustainable future for all, it is critical that we understand what motivates consumers' energy behaviors and how we can promote consumers' motivation to engage in sustainable-energy behaviors and act beyond immediate personal interests.
Autors: Lise Jans;Thijs Bouman;Kelly Fielding;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 35 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physical Model for Metal–Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Under Gate-Bias and Illumination Stress
Abstract:
A negative shift in the turn-on voltage of a metal–oxide thin-film transistor under negative gate-bias and illumination stress has been frequently reported. The stretched-exponential equation, predicated largely on a charge-trapping mechanism, has been commonly used to fit the time dependence of the shift. The fitting parameters, some with unsubstantiated physical origin, are extracted by curve fitting. A more physically based model is presently formulated, incorporating the photogeneration, transport, and trapping of holes. The model parameters of generation energy barrier, hole mobility, and trapping time constant are extracted from the measured gate-bias dependent turn-on voltage shift. It is theoretically deduced and experimentally verified that the degradation kinetics is either generation or transport limited. The model can be further applied to explain the attenuated shift under positive bias and illumination stress, if the screening of the electric field emanating from the gate bias is also accounted for. From the effects of asymmetric source/drain bias applied during stress, it is deduced that the trapping is localized along the length of the channel interface. The turn-on voltage of a transistor after such stress is constrained by the portion of the channel exhibiting the smallest shift.
Autors: Jiapeng Li;Lei Lu;Rongsheng Chen;Hoi-Sing Kwok;Man Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 142 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physical Modeling of TiO2 Nanotube Array-Based Capacitive Vapor Sensor
Abstract:
A physical model was developed to estimate the capacitance and capacitive response of electrochemically grown ordered and self-organized TiO2 nanotube array based sandwich structured vapor sensor device (Au/TiO2 nanotube /Ti). Nanotubes were modeled in hexagonal grid geometry considering its structural and morphological parameters. Five different capacitances, i.e., capacitance due to TiO2 solid (Cn), free space in bulk (Cf), Au/TiO2 junction (Cju), Ti/TiO2 junction (Cjd), and internal capacitances between two adjacent nanotubes (Cz) were formulated, simplified, and represented in a complex capacitive network. Equivalent device capacitance (Ceq) was calculated by solving the charge-voltage equations through matrix method. Simulated capacitance (Ceq) and capacitive response (R C) of Au/TiO2 nanotube /Ti device towards different organic vapors were compared with practically measured values obtained by impedance analysis method.
Autors: Arnab Hazra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 93 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Portable 3-D Imaging FMCW MIMO Radar Demonstrator With a $24times 24$ Antenna Array for Medium-Range Applications
Abstract:
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars have been shown to improve target detection for surveillance applications thanks to their proven high-performance properties. In this paper, the design, implementation, and results of a complete 3-D imaging frequency-modulated continuous-wave MIMO radar demonstrator are presented. The radar sensor working frequency range spans between 16 and 17 GHz, and the proposed solution is based on a 24-transmitter and 24-receiver MIMO radar architecture, implemented by time-division multiplexing of the transmit signals. A modular approach based on conventional low-cost printed circuit boards is used for the transmit and receive systems. Using digital beamforming algorithms and radar processing techniques on the received signals, a high-resolution 3-D sensing of the range, azimuth, and elevation can be calculated. With the current antenna configuration, an angular resolution of 2.9° can be reached. Furthermore, by taking advantage of the 1-GHz bandwidth of the system, a range resolution of 0.5 m is achieved. The radio-frequency front-end, digital system and radar signal processing units are here presented. The medium-range surveillance potential and the high-resolution capabilities of the MIMO radar are proved with results in the form of radar images captured from the field measurements.
Autors: Alexander Ganis;Enric Miralles Navarro;Bernhard Schoenlinner;Ulrich Prechtel;Askold Meusling;Christoph Heller;Thomas Spreng;Jan Mietzner;Christian Krimmer;Babette Haeberle;Steffen Lutz;Mirko Loghi;Angel Belenguer;Hector Esteban;Volker Ziegler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 298 - 312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Precision Wideband Quadrature Generation Technique With Feedback Control for Millimeter-Wave Communication Systems
Abstract:
An integrated two-stage polyphase filter (PPF) with feedback control for quadrature local oscillator generation at millimeter-wave frequencies is described. To minimize the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) mismatch, the second stage of the PPF utilizes triode-region nMOS transistors to implement variable resistors where the resistance is precisely controlled by modulating the shared gate-to-source bias voltage at the gate of nMOS devices. The gate bias voltage of the triode-region devices is set by a feedback loop which changes with variations in process, voltage, and temperature. A prototype quadrature signal generator, employing this PPF design, is integrated in a 28-nm LP CMOS process. A worst case measured phase/amplitude imbalance of 2°/0.32 dB (typical-typical corner dies) and 2.2°/0.55 dB (slow-slow corner dies) is reported over 7-GHz bandwidth for a fixed control current (). By retuning at every 7 GHz, this IQ generator would maintain the measured quadrature accuracy from 55 to 70 GHz. The core area occupied by the IQ generator circuitry is and the device consumes less than , of which 120/ comes from the feedback control-loop/opamp, respectively. The proposed PPF method has a simulated input impedance of in-parallel with 18 fF.
Autors: Tong Zhang;Ali Najafi;Mazhareddin Taghivand;Jacques Christophe Rudell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 215 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Quadratically Constrained Stochastic Gradient Algorithm for Beamforming in Mobile Communications
Abstract:
This brief presents a new adaptive beamforming algorithm for mobile communication systems with antenna arrays. Such an algorithm belongs to the constrained stochastic gradient class of algorithms, in which the maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) is carried out by using stochastic gradient optimization strategies along with instantaneous cost functions related to the SINR. The main novelty of the proposed algorithm is the use of an adaptive quadratic constraint that allows obtaining enhanced solutions for both transient and steady-state phases of the iterative process. As a consequence, the proposed algorithm, termed adaptive-projection quadratically constrained stochastic gradient (AP-QCSG) algorithm, is capable of outperforming other constrained stochastic gradient (CSG) algorithms from the literature. Simulation results are presented aiming to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Ciro André Pitz;Eduardo Luiz Ortiz Batista;Rui Seara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 125 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable 10-to-12-b 80-to-20-MS/s Bandwidth Scalable SAR ADC
Abstract:
An asynchronous successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for wideband multi-standard systems is presented. The ADC can be configured as an 80-MS/s 10-b, 40-MS/s 11-b, or 20-MS/s 12-b converter. Time-interleaved technique is applied to expand sampling bandwidth exponentially while resolution scales down. The channel mismatches are cancelled by the digital calibration technique. The bulk-biasing technique is used in the sampling switch to reduce the influence of the charge injection caused by the top-plate sampling. In addition, the configurable asynchronous processing is employed to extend the flexibility of speed and resolution tradeoff. Moreover, the two-step digital-to-analog converter (DAC) switching method is proposed to reduce the switching energy of the DAC. Prototyped in 180-nm CMOS process, the ADC achieves the 56.7-/61.2-/64.6-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) and 72.3-/74.8-/75.5-dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) at 80-/40-/20-MHz sampling frequency with the power consumption of 2.61/2.05/1.77 mW.
Autors: Yi Shen;Zhangming Zhu;Shubin Liu;Yintang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 51 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable Filtering Antenna With Integrated Bandpass Filters for UWB/WLAN Applications
Abstract:
This communication presents a new reconfigurable filtering monopole antenna design with three switchable states for UWB/WLAN applications. The antenna has three independent ports for ultra-wideband state, 2.4 GHz WLAN narrowband state, and 5.8 GHz WLAN narrowband state, respectively. The narrowband state at 2.4 GHz is produced by a first-order microstrip filter using an open-loop resonator, and the narrowband state around 5.8 GHz is obtained by involving a third-order hairpin bandpass filter in the RF path. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved by RF path selection using dc controlled p-i-n diodes. As a result, narrowband filtering responses at desired frequency bands can be achieved. One antenna prototype is simulated, fabricated, and measured. Measured reflection coefficients and radiation patterns demonstrate that the proposed reconfigurable filtering antenna is an eligible candidate for future multifunctional systems incorporating both UWB and WLAN systems.
Autors: Jingya Deng;Simin Hou;Luyu Zhao;Lixin Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 401 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable LDPC Decoder Optimized for 802.11n/ac Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a high data-rate low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder, suitable for the 802.11n/ac (WiFi) standard. The innovative features of the proposed decoder relate to the decoding algorithms and the interconnection between the processing elements. The reduction of the hardware complexity of decoders based on the min-sum (MS) algorithms comes at the cost of performance degradation, especially at high-noise regions. We introduce more accurate approximations of the log-sum-product algorithm that also operate well for low signal-to-noise ratio values. Telecommunication standards, including WiFi, support more than one quasi-cyclic LDPC codes of different characteristics, such as codeword length and code rate. A proposed design technique derives networks, capable of supporting a variety of codes and efficiently realizing connectivity between a variable number of processing units, with a relatively small hardware overhead over the single-code case. As a demonstration of the proposed technique, we implemented a reconfigurable network based on barrel rotators, suitable for LDPC decoders compatible with WiFi standard. Our approach achieves low complexity and high clock frequency, compared with related prior works. A 90-nm application-specified integrated circuit implementation of the proposed high-parallel WiFi decoder occupies 4.88 mm2 and achieves an information throughput rate of 4.5 Gbit/s at a clock frequency of 555 MHz.
Autors: Ioannis Tsatsaragkos;Vassilis Paliouras;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 182 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable Streaming Deep Convolutional Neural Network Accelerator for Internet of Things
Abstract:
Convolutional neural network (CNN) offers significant accuracy in image detection. To implement image detection using CNN in the Internet of Things (IoT) devices, a streaming hardware accelerator is proposed. The proposed accelerator optimizes the energy efficiency by avoiding unnecessary data movement. With unique filter decomposition technique, the accelerator can support arbitrary convolution window size. In addition, max-pooling function can be computed in parallel with convolution by using separate pooling unit, thus achieving throughput improvement. A prototype accelerator was implemented in TSMC 65-nm technology with a core size of 5 mm2. The accelerator can support major CNNs and achieve 152GOPS peak throughput and 434GOPS/W energy efficiency at 350 mW, making it a promising hardware accelerator for intelligent IoT devices.
Autors: Li Du;Yuan Du;Yilei Li;Junjie Su;Yen-Cheng Kuan;Chun-Chen Liu;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 198 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reduced-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method Based on POD for Electromagnetic Simulation
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the design of a reduced-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method for electromagnetic simulation. A centered flux approximation for surface integral and a second-order leap-frog scheme for advancing in time are applied in the classical DG method. The POD basis is created by the eigensystem of the correlation matrix, which is generated by the snapshot matrix whose columns are the snapshot vectors extracted from the high-fidelity DG simulation. The POD discontinuous Galerkin time-domain formulation with lower dimension and sufficiently high accuracy is established by applying a Galerkin projection for the semidiscrete DG scheme. The overall goal is to reduce the computational cost while maintaining an acceptable level of accuracy. Numerical experiments for electromagnetic problems illustrate the performance of the proposed reduction method.
Autors: Kun Li;Ting-Zhu Huang;Liang Li;Stéphane Lanteri;Li Xu;Bin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 242 - 254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reliable and Reversible Image Privacy Protection Based on False Colors
Abstract:
Protection of visual privacy has become an indispensable component of video surveillance systems due to pervasive use of video cameras for surveillance purposes. In this paper, we propose two fully reversible privacy protection schemes implemented within the JPEG architecture. In both schemes, privacy protection is accomplished by using false colors with the first scheme being adaptable to other privacy protection filters while the second is false color-specific. Both schemes support either a lossless mode in which the original unprotected content can be fully extracted or a lossy mode, which limits file size while still maintaining intelligibility. Our method is not region-of-interest (ROI)-based and can be applied on entire frames without compromising intelligibility. This frees the user from having to define ROIs and improves security as tracking ROIs under dynamic content may fail, exposing sensitive information. Our experimental results indicate the favorability of our method over other commonly used solutions to protect visual privacy.
Autors: Serdar Çiftçi;Ahmet Oğuz Akyüz;Touradj Ebrahimi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 20, issue:1, pages: 68 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Repetitive Inductive Pulsed Power Supply Circuit Topology Based on HTSPPT
Abstract:
Inductive energy storage for pulsed power supplies is considered to have great potential because its energy density is 1 order of magnitude higher than that of capacitive one. Associating with the superconducting technology and the STRETCH meat grinder circuit, which proposed by the Institute of Advanced Technology, a superconducting inductive pulsed power supply (SPPS) circuit has been proposed by using an air-core high-temperature superconducting pulsed power transformer (HTSPPT) in our previous study. It can not only recapture the energy in the leakage flux and slow down the current change in inductors by using a capacitor, but also reduce the coil loss and the power requirement of the primary source by using superconducting inductors. However, it can be found that the SPPS may generate a large residual current during the discharging phase, which results in an adverse influence on the working frequency and the energy transfer efficiency of the whole system. This paper proposes a modified circuit based on the bridge current switching circuit and HTSPPT. The main principle of the circuit is that the recaptured energy in the capacitor and the residual energy in the secondary are used to precharge the primary inductor for the next cycle, which shortens the charging time, generates continuous current pulses, and improves the energy transfer efficiency. The procedure of the repetitive SPPS is analyzed in detail, and simulations are carried out to explain how the circuit works clearly.
Autors: Haitao Li;Yadong Zhang;Cunshan Zhang;Mingliang Gao;Yunzhu An;Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 46, issue:1, pages: 134 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Resistor-Based Temperature Sensor With a 0.13 pJ $cdot$ K2 Resolution FoM
Abstract:
This paper describes a high-resolution energy-efficient CMOS temperature sensor, intended for the temperature compensation of MEMS/quartz frequency references. The sensor is based on silicided poly-silicon thermistors, which are embedded in a Wien-bridge RC filter. When driven at a fixed frequency, the filter exhibits a temperature-dependent phase shift, which is digitized by an energy-efficient continuous-time phase-domain delta-sigma modulator. Implemented in a 0.18- CMOS technology, the sensor draws 87 from a 1.8 V supply and achieves a resolution of 410 in a 5-ms conversion time. This translates into a state-of-the-art resolution figure-of-merit of 0.13 pJ K2. When packaged in ceramic, the sensor achieves an inaccuracy of 0.2 °C (3 from −40 °C to 85 °C after a single-point calibration and a correction for systematic nonlinearity. This can be reduced to ±0.03 °C (3 after a first-order fit. In addition, the sensor exhibits low 1/ noise and packaging shift.
Autors: Sining Pan;Yanquan Luo;Saleh Heidary Shalmany;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 164 - 173
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A ROIC for Diode Uncooled IRFPA With Hybrid Non-Uniformity Compensation Technique
Abstract:
A CMOS readout integrated circuit with non-uniformity calibration for diode uncooled infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) is presented in this paper. Pixel signals are sampled and held by a capacitor, eliminating the extra current of the reference pixel. We propose a new transconductance amplifier with offset cancellation structure, utilizing output offset voltage storage. A novel 8-b current splitting DAC array is proposed in this paper. With the help of an off-chip ADC, the bias current of each pixel can be adjusted by DAC array, calibrating the non-uniformity of the IRFPA. The proposed circuit with 32 readout channels is fabricated using a 0.35- standard CMOS process. The measured results show that the average output offset voltages are 600 and 40 mV before and after calibration, respectively. The non-uniformity calibration technique has been proven very effective with 95% offset decrement, and this paper is especially suitable for large-scale image sensor.
Autors: Gongyuan Zhao;Mao Ye;Kai Hu;Yiqiang Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 501 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Rotational Actuator Using a Thermomagnetic-Induced Magnetic Force Interaction
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate a rotational actuator using a thermomagnetic-induced magnetic force interaction. The actuator consists of a magnetic rotary beam, stainless-steel bearing, mechanical frame, thermomagnetic Gadolinium sheets, and thermoelectric generators (TEGs). Experimental results show that applying a sequence of currents to the TEGs successfully produces sequential magnetic forces. Consequently, these sequential magnetic forces rotate the beam for revolutions. When applying a sequence set of currents of −0.5 and 1.3 A, the maximum rotation speed and maximum stall torque of the actuator is 3.81 rpm and Nm, respectively. Most importantly, the operating temperatures of other thermomagnetic (and electrothermal) actuators are usually high, but the operating temperature of our actuator is approximately room temperature (13 °C–27 °C). Therefore, our actuators have more practical applications. According to the above-mentioned features, we believe our actuator is an important alternative approach to developing future rotational actuators and motors.
Autors: Chih-Cheng Cheng;Tien-Kan Chung;Chin-Chung Chen;Hsin-Min Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Semantic-Middleware-Supported Receding Horizon Optimal Power Flow in Energy Grids
Abstract:
Energy management in electric grids with multiple energy sources, generators, storage devices, and interacting loads along with their complex behaviors requires grid wide control. Communication infrastructure that aggregates information from heterogeneous devices in the electric grid making the applications completely independent of physical connectivity is essential for building in the context of control applications. This investigation presents a semantic middleware that is used to implement a receding-horizon-based optimal power flow (OPF) in smart grids. The presence of renewable energy sources, storage systems, and loads dispersed all along the grid necessitates the use of grid wide control and a communication infrastructure to support it. To this extent, the proposed middleware will serve as the basis for representing various components of the power grid. It is enriched with intelligence by semantic annotation and ontologies that provide situation awareness and context discovery. The middleware deployment is demonstrated by implementing the receding horizon OPF in a network in Steinkjer, Norway. Our results demonstrate the advantages of both the middleware and the algorithm. Furthermore, the results prove the added flexibility obtained in the grid due to the addition of renewable energy and storage systems. The significant advantage of the proposed approach is that the real-time monitoring infrastructure is used for improving the flexibility, reliability, and efficiency of the grid.
Autors: Alessio Maffei;Seshadhri Srinivasan;Pedro Castillejo;José Fernán Martínez;Luigi Iannelli;Eilert Bjerkan;Luigi Glielmo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 35 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Shadow-Overlapping Algorithm for Estimating Building Heights From VHR Satellite Images
Abstract:
Building height is a key geometric attribute for generating 3-D building models. We propose a novel four-stage approach for automated estimation of building heights from their shadows in very high resolution (VHR) multispectral images. First, a building’s actual shadow regions are detected by applying ratio-band algorithm to the VHR image. Second, 2-D building footprint geometries are identified using graph theory and morphological fuzzy processing techniques. Third, artificial shadow regions are simulated using the identified building footprint and solar information in the image metadata at predefined height increments. Finally, the difference between the actual and simulated shadow regions at every height increment is computed using Jaccard similarity coefficient. The estimated building height corresponds to the height of the simulated shadow region that resulted in the maximum value for Jaccard index. The algorithm is tested on seven urban sites in Cardiff, U.K. with various levels of morphological complexity. Our method outperforms the past attempts, and the mean error is reduced by at least 21%.
Autors: Nada Kadhim;Monjur Mourshed;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 8 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Shared Network Access Business Model for Distribution Networks
Abstract:
This letter proposes a new business model for distribution network operators (DNOs)—shared network access (SNA), aiming to integrate flexible demand in a cost-effective manner. The SNA scheme incentivises the incumbent DNOs to give up its exclusive access to the network, leasing the spare capacity or back up capacity to a licensed independent party. The ownership of assets will be retained by the incumbent DNO while competition will be introduced in the operation of the spare capacity. The independent parties who have license for SNA will act as secondary DNOs, tapping into the spare capacity in the network to provide flexible network services for flexible generation and demand, thus substantially reduce the network access cost for flexibility. This paper quantifies the potential benefit of mobilizing spare capacity for flexibility network usage and discusses how the proposed business model can capture such value for each player. The results demonstrate that the competition brought by the proposed SNA can take advantage of the unused capacities in the existing network assets and be able to substantially increase their capability in integrating flexible demand and generation.
Autors: Ran Li;Zhipeng Zhang;Furong Li;Petri Ahokangas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1082 - 1084
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Silent Microwave Drill for Deep Holes in Concrete
Abstract:
This paper presents a mechanically assisted microwave drill (MWD) capable of drilling 26-cm-deep 12-mm-diameter holes in concrete. This record significantly extends the inherent /4-depth capability (~1.5 cm at 2.45 GHz) of the basic MWD scheme. Compared with conventional mechanical drills, this MWD is characterized by a relatively silent and vibration-free operation, but its drilling speed is yet slower than 1 cm/min. This paper reviews the fundamental MWD mechanism (utilizing localized microwave heating and thermal-runaway instability), and extends it for deeper holes by also using the coaxial applicator as a slowly rotating hollow reamer to remove the debris. The MWD prototype is introduced, including its adaptive impedance matching and remote-operation features, and its experimental results are presented. Theoretical and practical MWD aspects are discussed, and potential developments are indicated (e.g., for faster drilling and iron-rebar cutting). The present MWD performance can be useful for specific applications which critically require silent drilling operations in concrete.
Autors: Eli Jerby;Yuri Nerovny;Yehuda Meir;Or Korin;Ron Peleg;Yariv Shamir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 522 - 529
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Coaxial to Circular Waveguide OMT for Low-Power Dual-Polarized Antenna Applications
Abstract:
A simple design for an orthomode transducer (OMT) is proposed for low-power antenna applications, such as receiver antennas as well as laboratory testing antennas. The design exploits detuning pins to enable enlarging the higher order mode-free bandwidth in an asymmetric configuration without compromising the port isolation. The design guidelines are presented for a scalable design. Moreover, the design is optimized to utilize all the single-mode operation bandwidth of the circular waveguide, covering the satellite communications band in North America (i.e., from 11.7 to 14.2 GHz). The presented OMT features a port coupling level below −34 dB. The measurement results are in a very good agreement with the full-wave analysis simulations.
Autors: Mohamed A. Moharram;Abdelhady Mahmoud;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 109 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Measurement Technique for Accurate Bistatic Retrodirective Radiation Pattern Calculation Based on the Active Element Pattern Method
Abstract:
This communication presents a new method for calculating bistatic responses from retrodirective arrays when only monostatic measurement data are available. The proposed approach offers considerable simplification to the measurement facilities required for retrodirective array characterization, since bistatic measurements are significantly more complicated to perform in comparison with monostatic measurements. The method involves making some minor changes to the monostatic measurement configuration, enabling the capture of active element patterns with magnitude and phase data, and combining these with a new expression to obtain the bistatic calculation. Very close agreement has been obtained when compared to actual measured bistatic responses of a ten element retrodirective patch array. In particular, the predicted beam position from the new method is within 0.25° at 40° scan angle, compared to a disagreement of 1.5° using previously reported methods.
Autors: N. B. Buchanan;V. F. Fusco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 472 - 475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Planar Dual-Band Bandpass Filter With Multiple Transmission Poles and Zeros
Abstract:
A simple and planar design structure for dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) with multiple transmission poles and zeros is proposed in this brief. According to frequency response transformation, two passbands are realized on both sides of the operation frequency. Sharp selectivity and high isolation level with eight transmission poles and seven transmission zeros are achieved just by employing three-section coupled lines and three short-circuit stubs. Besides, the analytical (closed-form) extraction process for the transmission poles and zeros of the proposed dual-band BPF is presented based on the rigorous scattering-parameters theory and the even- and odd-mode analysis method. A prototype for the dual-band BPF with 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 41.1% and 19.0% is designed and fabricated. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement to verify the validity of the proposed design principle.
Autors: Yongle Wu;Liwei Cui;Zheng Zhuang;Weimin Wang;Yuanan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 56 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Shot Approach to Lossy Source Coding Under Logarithmic Loss
Abstract:
This paper considers the problem of lossy source coding with a specific distortion measure: logarithmic loss. The focus of this paper is on the single-shot approach, which exposes crisply the connection between lossless source coding with list decoding and lossy source coding with log-loss. Fixed-length and variable-length bounds are presented. Fixed-length bounds include the single-shot fundamental limit for average as well as excess distortion. Variable-length bounds include the single-shot fundamental limit for average as well as excess length. Two multi-terminal problems are addressed: coding with side information (Wyner–Ziv) and multiple descriptions coding. In both the cases, the application of the Shannon–McMillan theorem to the single-shot bounds yields the rate-distortion function and the rate distortion-region for stationary ergodic sources.
Autors: Yanina Y. Shkel;Sergio Verdú;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 64, issue:1, pages: 129 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Stage LED Driver With High-Performance Primary-Side-Regulated Characteristic
Abstract:
A traditional flyback LED driver is limited by its low performance, which usually does not meet the power factor (PF) and total harmonic distortion requirements according to Energy Star or IEC61000-3-2. The control loop from the secondary side to the primary side has low reliability and employs more components, which reduces the power density of the system and increases the cost. In this brief, based on single-stage single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) and flyback converter, a primary-side-regulated LED driver is proposed to improve the performance of the system. Working in DCM, the SEPIC circuit realizes the PF correction naturally. For the flyback converter, the proposed primary-side-regulated method improves the power density and guarantees accurate control of the output current. A 100-W prototype based on SEPIC-flyback was built to verify the analysis and the experimental results coincided with the analysis results satisfactorily.
Autors: Yijie Wang;Shu Zhang;J. Marcos Alonso;Xiaosheng Liu;Dianguo Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 76 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sparse Minimal-Order Dynamic Model of Power Networks Based on dq0 Signals
Abstract:
Today the dq0 reference frame is mainly used for modeling and control of traditional electric machines and small power sources. A current challenge is to merge various dq0-based models appearing in recent literature to obtain a complete model of a large power system. To this end, in this paper we propose a model describing the dynamics of large transmission networks based on dq0 quantities. The proposed model is based on a standard network topology, uses sparse system matrices, and is of minimal order. We also demonstrate how this model may be used to construct a small-signal description of a complete system that includes the transmission network, generators, and loads. Results are illustrated on the basis of a long transmission line, and using the 118-bus test case network. This paper is accompanied by a free software package.
Autors: Juri Belikov;Yoash Levron;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 1059 - 1067
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spectral Graph Theoretic Approach for Monitoring Multivariate Time Series Data From Complex Dynamical Processes
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to monitor complex process dynamics manifest in multivariate (multidimensional) time series data using a spectral (algebraic) graph theoretic approach. We test the hypothesis that the spectral graph-based topological invariants detect incipient process drifts earlier [lower average run length (ARL1)] and with higher fidelity (consistency of detection) when compared with the conventional statistics-based approaches. The presented approach maps a multidimensional sensor data stream (visualize as time and as the number of sensors) as an unweighted and undirected network graph , indexed by its vertices and edges , i.e., . The rationale is that the graph-based topological invariants are surrogate representatives of the system state. We compare the monitoring performance of spectral graph theoretic invariants with conventional statistical features in an exponentially weighted moving average control chart setting. The practical utility of the approach is substantiated in the context of process monitoring in two advanced manufacturing scenarios, namely, ultraprecision machining (UPM) and semiconductor chemical mechanical planarization. These studies corroborate the hypothesis that graph theoretic invariants, when used as monitoring statistics, lead to lower ARL1 and more consistent detections in contrast to conventional statistical features. F- r instance, in the UPM case, the fault detection delay using graph theoretic invariants is less than 160 ms, compared with over 8 s of delay with statistical features.

Note to Practitioners—This paper addresses the critical problem of capturing process drifts from multidimensional (multisensor) data. The novelty of this paper is the development of a graph theoretic approach that combines signals from multiple in situ sensors for detecting abnormal process drifts. We show that this approach, which invokes graph-based topological invariants instead of statistical feature mining, is capable of capturing process drifts at an earlier stage (in terms of detection delay or lower average run length) and higher consistency of detection than conventional statistical features. As a practical consequence of this research, the operator can track the status of a complex process in a tractable control chart setting with only two graph theoretic topological invariants, as opposed to complex black-box models involving several features.

Autors: Mohammad Samie Tootooni;Prahalad K. Rao;Chun-An Chou;Zhenyu James Kong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 127 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stabilized Complex LOBPCG Eigensolver for the Analysis of Moderately Lossy EM Structures
Abstract:
This letter proposes a stabilized locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient method for computing selected eigenvalues for complex symmetric generalized non-Hermitian eigenproblems. Effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated for a moderately lossy dual-mode dielectric resonator, modeled using finite-element method with higher order elements.
Autors: Michal Rewienski;Adam Dziekonski;Adam Lamecki;Michal Mrozowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 28, issue:1, pages: 7 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A State Transition MIP Formulation for the Unit Commitment Problem
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the state-transition formulation for the unit commitment (UC) problem. This formulation uses new decision variables that capture the state transitions of the generators, instead of their on/off statuses. We show that this new approach produces a formulation which naturally includes valid inequalities, commonly used to strengthen other formulations. We demonstrate the performance of the state-transition formulation and observe that it leads to improved solution times especially in longer time-horizon instances. As an important consequence, the new formulation allows us to solve realistic instances in less than 12 minutes on an ordinary desktop PC, leading to a speed-up of a factor of almost two, in comparison to the nearest contender. Finally, we demonstrate the value of considering longer planning horizons in UC problems.
Autors: Semih Atakan;Guglielmo Lulli;Suvrajeet Sen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 736 - 748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A State-Space Approach to Modelling DC Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Many modelling methods for the analysis of dc distribution grids only consider monopolar configurations and do not allow for mutual couplings to be taken into account. The modelling method presented in this paper aims to deal with both of these issues. A state-space approach is chosen for its flexibility and computational speed. The derived approach can be applied to any dc distribution system regardless of its configuration and takes into account mutual couplings between phase conductors. Moreover, the state-space matrices can be derived in a programmatic manner. The derived model is verified empirically and by a reference model created in Simulink using PowerLib blocks. Subsequently, an illustrative system is analyzed, which shows the utility of the presented method in analyzing the dynamics of dc distribution systems. The presented method is especially useful for the analysis, design, and optimization of, for example, the stability and control systems of dc distribution systems.
Autors: Nils H. van der Blij;Laura M. Ramirez-Elizondo;Matthijs T. J. Spaan;Pavol Bauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 943 - 950
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stochastic Adaptive Robust Optimization Approach for the Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning
Abstract:
This paper proposes a stochastic adaptive robust optimization approach for the generation and transmission expansion planning problem. The problem is formulated under the perspective of a central planner, e.g., the transmission system operator, that aims at determining the generation and transmission expansion plans that minimize both the expansion and operation costs. This central planner builds the transmission facilities and promotes the building of the most suitable generating units among private profit-oriented investors. Uncertainties in the future peak demand and the future generation (fuel) cost are modeled using confidence bounds, while uncertainties in the demand variability and the production of stochastic units are modeled using a number of operating conditions. Results of an illustrative example and a case study based on the IEEE 118-bus test system show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Luis Baringo;Ana Baringo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 792 - 802
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Structured Sparse Subspace Learning Algorithm for Anomaly Detection in UAV Flight Data
Abstract:
Health status monitoring of flight-critical sensors is crucial to the flight safety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). While many flight data anomaly detection algorithms have been proposed, most do not consider data source information and cannot identify which data sources contribute most to the anomaly, hindering proper fault mitigation. To address this challenge, a structured sparse subspace learning (SSL) anomaly detection (SSSLAD) algorithm, which reformulates anomaly detection as a structured SSL problem, is proposed. A structured norm is imposed on the projection coefficients matrix to achieve structured sparsity and help identify anomaly sources. Utilizing an efficient optimization method based on Nesterov’s method and a subspace tracking approach considering temporal dependence, the computation is efficient. Experiments on real UAV flight data sets illustrate that the proposed SSSLAD algorithm can accurately and quickly detect and identify anomalous sources in flight data, outperforming state of art algorithms, both in terms of accuracy and speed.
Autors: Yongfu He;Yu Peng;Shaojun Wang;Datong Liu;Philip H. W. Leong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 90 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study of Endurance Issues in HfO2-Based Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors: Charge Trapping and Trap Generation
Abstract:
Recent demonstration of aggressively scaled HfO2-based ferroelectric field effect transistors (FE-HfO2-FETs) has illustrated a pathway to fabricate FeFETs that enjoy COMS-compatibility, low power, fast switching speed, scalability, and long retention. One potential issue of this promising technology is its limited endurance, which has been attributed to the degradation of gate stack before the fatigue of polarization in the ferroelectric HfO2 layer. Some associated work has identified charge trapping and trap generation as key villains, but a clear understanding of two aforementioned underlining mechanisms is still missing. In this letter, we initiated this letter to investigate the roles of charge trapping and trap generation in causing endurance failure of FE-HfO2 FETs.
Autors: Nanbo Gong;Tso-Ping Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 39, issue:1, pages: 15 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study of the Characteristics of a Deformable Antenna Based on Gas Discharge
Abstract:
This paper presents an introduction to a deformable plasma antenna excited by an alternating current power supply at a frequency of 12 kHz. The deformable discharge tube could be transformed into many types of shapes, such as a monopole, U-shape, loop, helix, or plane, by means of a simple mounting and rotating system. The characteristics of the antenna were studied for various discharge parameters and antenna shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that the antenna characteristics, such as impedance, radiation pattern, gain, and polarization, can be simply controlled by varying the discharge parameters and antenna shapes. Compared with a conventional plasma antenna made of hard materials, the reconfiguration scope of the deformable plasma antenna is considerably broader. Moreover, the antenna shape can be modified in a manner that is both flexible and easily implemented.
Autors: Jiansen Zhao;Xinqiang Chen;Shengzheng Wang;Wei Liu;Baoxian Ji;Yue Liu;Zhen Sun;Tie Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 59 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sub-Microwatt Class-AB Super Buffer: Frequency Compensation for Settling-Time Improvement
Abstract:
This brief presents a frequency compensation technique to improve the settling time in driving moderate capacitive load (10–20 pF) of a low-power (<1 ) class-AB super buffer, wherein previously reported super buffers exhibit poor stability performance. From post-layout simulations in a 0.18- CMOS process, the proposed super buffer—while driving a 10-pF load and consuming less than 1 of quiescent current from a 1.2-V supply voltage—achieves a factor of 1.8 (positive output direction) and 5.1 (negative output direction) reduction in the settling time compared to before compensation. We also validated the proposed technique through the measurements of a super buffer built on a protoboard with commercial discrete MOS transistors.
Autors: Pakorn Prasopsin;Woradorn Wattanapanitch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 26 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Subthreshold Baseband Processor Core Design With Custom Modules and Cells for Passive RFID Tags
Abstract:
Sophisticated subthreshold passive radio frequency identification tag’s baseband processor (BBP) core design for ultralow-power Internet of Things end devices is presented in this paper. Custom logic cells and tailored logic architectures are applied to eliminate timing violations when the operating voltage is much lower than nominal level. For the consideration of limited availability of radio frequency power, power-aware scheme is applied to the key modules, including PIE decoding and command receiving. Furthermore, Galois linear feedback shift register and double-edge-triggered techniques help to improve clock efficiency and reduce the impact of frequency variation in data link portions. Importantly, a novel custom ratioed logic style is adopted in key modules to fundamentally speed up signals’ propagation at ultralow-voltage. The proposed BBP was fabricated in 90-nm CMOS as well as the regular design with the same function. It was also implemented in the tag chip’s fabrication. In measurement the proposed design indicates good robustness and is much more competent for subthreshold operation. It can operate below 0.3 V with power consumption below 130 nW.
Autors: Weiwei Shi;An Pan;Shi Yu;Chiu-Sing Choy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 159 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Successive Approximation Recursive Digital Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator With PD Compensation and Sub-LSB Duty Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a recursive digital low-dropout (RLDO) regulator that improves response time, quiescent power, and load regulation dynamic range over prior digital LDO designs by 1–2 orders of magnitude. The proposed RLDO enables a practical digital replacement to analog LDOs by using an SAR-like binary search algorithm in a coarse loop and a sub-LSB pulse width modulation duty control scheme in a fine loop. A proportional-derivative compensation scheme is employed to ensure stable operation independent of load current, the size of the output decoupling capacitor, and clock frequency. Implemented in 0.0023 mm2 in 65 nm CMOS, the 7-bit RLDO achieves, at a 0.5-V input, a response time of 15.1 ns with a figure of merit of 199.4 ps, along with stable operation across a 20 000 dynamic load range.
Autors: Loai G. Salem;Julian Warchall;Patrick P. Mercier;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 53, issue:1, pages: 35 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Systematic Solution to Multi-Instrument Coregistration of High-Resolution Planetary Images to an Orthorectified Baseline
Abstract:
We address the problem of automatically coregistering planetary images to a common baseline, introducing a novel generic technique that achieves an unprecedented robustness to different image inputs, thus making batch-mode coregistration achievable without requiring the usual parameter tweaking. We introduce a novel image matching technique, which boosts matching performance even under the most strenuous circumstances, and experimentally demonstrate validation through an extensive experimental multi-instrument setup that includes images from eight high-resolution data sets of the Mars and the Moon. The technique is further tested in a batch-mode processing, in which approximately 1.6% of all high-resolution Martian imagery is coregistered to a common baseline.
Autors: Panagiotis Sidiropoulos;Jan-Peter Muller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 78 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Target-Free Automatic Self-Calibration Approach for Multibeam Laser Scanners
Abstract:
In this paper, a target-free automatic self-calibration approach for multibeam laser scanners is proposed. The proposed approach uses the isomorphism constraint among the laser scanner data to optimize the calibration parameters, uses the ambiguity judgment algorithm to solve the mismatch problem, and finally achieves the purpose of automatic calibration. The experimental results show that the accuracy of our algorithm is higher than that of the target-based calibration approach. The calibration process is automatic and fast.
Autors: Zheng Gong;Chenglu Wen;Cheng Wang;Jonathan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 67, issue:1, pages: 238 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tensor-Based Multiple Clustering Approach With Its Applications in Automation Systems
Abstract:
Multiple clustering analysis has the clear advantages to discover latent data pattern in big data from different views, so it has tremendous practical values in automation industries. However, most of current algorithms are difficult to group heterogeneous data to multiple clusterings according to the requirements of different applications. This paper presents a flexible multiple clustering analytic and service framework, and a novel tensor-based multiple clusterings (TMC) approach. Heterogeneous data objects in cyber-physical-social systems are first represented as low-order tensors and a weight tensor construction approach is proposed to measure the importance of attributes combinations in heterogeneous feature spaces. Then, a selective weighted tensor distance is explored to cluster tensorized data objects for different applications. This paper, through a real-world smart bike maintenance system, illustrates TMC and evaluates its clustering performance. Experimental results reveal TMC can obtain higher quality clustering results but with lower redundancies to meet different requirements of applications in automation systems.
Autors: Yaliang Zhao;Laurence T. Yang;Ronghao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jan 2018, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 283 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2018:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z