Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 06-2017 sorted by title, page: 0

» "What Do You Do" [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Alfy Riddle;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 6 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $K$ -Band Phase Discriminator Using Multiport Downconversion for Monopulse Tracker
Abstract:
In this letter, K-band phase discriminator based on multiport downconversion for monopulse tracking system is presented. The proposed architecture adopts multiple six-port junctions to individually process elevation and azimuth difference signals delivered from a multibeam antenna feed network. To produce accurate 2-D angular information, elevation and azimuth difference channel path calibration by reflection-type phase shifters and attenuators are also used. The proposed hybrid multiport junction was implemented with microstrip passive circuits and GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits. The performance was verified at the satellite downlink frequency of 20 GHz by successful generations of quadrature I/Q signals according to elevation or azimuth difference signal variations.
Autors: Seong-Mo Moon;In-Bok Yom;Han Lim Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 27, issue:6, pages: 599 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $L_{1}$ -Regularization-Based SAR Imaging and CFAR Detection via Complex Approximated Message Passing
Abstract:
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a widely used active high-resolution microwave imaging technique that has alltime and all-weather reconnaissance ability. Compared with traditionally matched filtering (MF)-based methods, Lq(0 ≤ q ≤ 1) regularization technique can efficiently improve SAR imaging performance e.g., suppressing sidelobes and clutter. However, conventional Lq-regularization-based SAR imaging approach requires transferring the 2-D echo data into a vector and reconstructing the scene via 2-D matrix operations. This leads to significantly more computational complexity compared with MF, and makes it very difficult to apply in high-resolution and wide-swath imaging. Typical Lq regularization recovery algorithms, e.g., iterative thresholding algorithm, can improve imaging performance of bright targets, but not preserve the image background distribution well. Thus, image background statistical-property-based applications, such as constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, cannot be applied to regularization recovered SAR images. On the other hand, complex approximated message passing (CAMP), an iterative recovery algorithm for L1 regularization reconstruction, can achieve not only the sparse estimation of the original signal as typical regularization recovery algorithms but also a nonsparse solution simultaneously. In this paper, two novel CAMP-based SAR imaging algorithms are proposed for raw data and complex radar image data, respectively, along with CFAR detection via the CAMP recovered nonsparse result. The proposed method for raw data can not only improve SAR image performance as conventional L1 regularization technique but also reduce the computational cost efficiently. While only when we have MF recovered SAR complex image rather than raw data, the proposed method for complex image data can achieve a similar reconstructed image quality as the regularization-ba- ed SAR imaging approach using the full raw data. The most important contribution of this paper is that the proposed CAMP-based methods make CFAR detection based on the regularization reconstruction SAR image possible using their nonsparse scene estimations, which has a similar background statistical distribution as the MF recovered images. The experimental results validated the effectiveness of the proposed methods and the feasibility of the recovered nonsparse images being used for CFAR detection.
Autors: Hui Bi;Bingchen Zhang;Xiao Xiang Zhu;Wen Hong;Jinping Sun;Yirong Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 55, issue:6, pages: 3426 - 3440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $T$ – $\Omega $ Formulation for Eddy-Current Problems with Periodic Boundary Conditions
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel technique to perform the topological pre-processing needed in formulations based on an electric vector potential and a magnetic scalar potential when the eddy-current problem being solved is subject to periodic boundary conditions. In this case, in fact, all the techniques to produce the generators for the first cohomology group introduced in the literature cannot be used directly on the input mesh. The novel technique is very fast and it is used to model cables for power delivery.
Autors: Paolo Bettini;Roberto Benato;Sebastian Dambone Sessa;Ruben Specogna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $V$ -Band Waveguide Microcalorimeter for Millimeter-Wave Power Standards
Abstract:
This paper describes a recently developed V-band waveguide microcalorimeter that serves as primary power standards at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The design scheme of the waveguide microcalorimeter is presented, and its basic performance is evaluated. The stability of the thermopile module of the microcalorimeter at ambient temperature is measured, and appropriate parameters obtained from a linear modeling are employed to compensate the temperature drift. The thermal performance of an adiabatic waveguide is simulated using a finite-element-method-based tool. A dedicated high-power V-band source module is developed, and its stability and repeatability are evaluated. In order to determine the correction factor of the microcalorimeter, the offset-short method was used and the results are presented. The uncertainty budget of a V-band reference standard at selected frequencies is presented.
Autors: Jae-Yong Kwon;Tae-Weon Kang;No-Weon Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 66, issue:6, pages: 1598 - 1604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $\beta$ -Ga2O3 MOSFETs for Radio Frequency Operation
Abstract:
We demonstrate a -Ga2O3 MOSFET with record-high transconductance () of 21 mS/mm and extrinsic cutoff frequency () and maximum oscillating frequency () of 3.3 and 12.9 GHz, respectively, enabled by implementing a new highly doped ohmic cap layer with a sub-micron gate recess process. RF performance was further verified by CW Class-A power measurements with passive source and load tuning at 800 MHz, resulting in , power gain, and power-added efficiency of 0.23 W/mm, 5.1 dB, and 6.3%, respectively. These preliminary results indicate potential for monolithic or heterogeneous integration of power switch and RF devices using -Ga2O3.
Autors: Andrew Joseph Green;Kelson D. Chabak;Michele Baldini;Neil Moser;Ryan Gilbert;Robert C. Fitch;Günter Wagner;Zbigniew Galazka;Jonathan Mccandless;Antonio Crespo;Kevin Leedy;Gregg H. Jessen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 38, issue:6, pages: 790 - 793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ${H}_{\infty }$-LQR-Based Coordinated Control for Large Coal-Fired Boiler–Turbine Generation Units
Abstract:
The coordinated control system of a boiler–turbine unit plays an important role in maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, optimizing operational efficiency, and reducing pollutant emissions of the coal-fired power generation unit. The existing challenges (the fast response to wide-scaled load changes, the matching requirements between a boiler and a turbine, and cooperative operation of a large number of distributed devices) make the design of the coordinated controller for the boiler–turbine unit be a tough task. In this paper, based on a typical coal-fired power unit model, using the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR), a coordinated control scheme with performance is proposed: the method is used to ensure control performance on the basis of reasonable scheduling of distributed equipment; the LQR is applied to limit the control actions to meet the actuator saturation constraints. Case studies for a practical 500 MW coal-fired boiler–turbine unit model indicate that the designed control system has satisfactory performance in a wide operation range and has a very good boiler–turbine coordination capacity.
Autors: Le Wei;Fang Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 5212 - 5221
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ε-time early warning data backup in disaster-aware optical inter-connected data center networks
Abstract:
Backup in data center networks (DCNs) against disasters is a critical task for avoiding huge data loss. In this paper, we optimize data backup for a particular DCN node threatened by a disaster by assuming geodistributed optical interconnected DCNs, where the node can be aware of the disaster in an E time before it is disrupted. We first formulate an integer linear program (ILP) to find the maximum amount of data in the threatened DCN node that can be protected. This helps to determine which data should be protected according to data importance. Then we formulate another ILP to achieve minimum-cost backup by properly selecting a set of safe backup DCN nodes and corresponding backup routes. To get real-time solutions for engineering practice, we also propose a heuristic to achieve cost-efficient backup in ε-time early-warning disasters. Extensive numerical results show that the proposed algorithms can automatically adapt to different early warning times E for generating cost-efficient data backup solutions.
Autors: Lisheng Ma;Wei Su;Bin Wu;Tarik Taleb;Xiaohong Jiang;Norio Shiratori;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 9, issue:6, pages: 536 - 545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 Chapter Events [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Presents information on various APS Society chapters.
Autors: Ajay K. Poddar;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 10 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 IEEE Fellows Elevation and Recognition
Abstract:
Presents MMTS Society members who were elevated to the status of IEEE Fellow.
Autors: Alfy Riddle;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 36 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 22.2 ch Audio Encoding/Decoding Hardware System Based on MPEG-4 AAC
Abstract:
A 22.2 multichannel (22.2 ch) sound system has been adopted as an audio system for 8K Super Hi-Vision (8K). The 22.2 ch sound system is an advanced sound system composed of 24 channels three-dimensionally located in a space to envelop listeners in an immersive sound field. NHK has been working on standardizing and developing an 8K broadcasting system via a broadcasting satellite in time for test broadcasting in 2016. For an audio coding scheme, NHK developed a world-first 22.2 ch audio encoding/decoding hardware system (22.2 ch audio codec) capable of real time encoding/decoding. The fabricated 22.2 ch audio codec is based on MPEG-4 AAC and was assembled into the 8K codec together with the 8K video codec and the multiplexer. The audio quality of the fabricated 22.2 ch audio codec was assessed in an objective evaluation, and the evaluation results revealed the operational bit rates of the fabricated codec. An 8K satellite broadcasting experiment was carried out as a final verification test of the 8K broadcasting system, and 22.2 ch audio codec was found to be valid.
Autors: Takehiro Sugimoto;Yasushige Nakayama;Tomoyasu Komori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 426 - 432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 25-Gb/s Transmission Over 2.5-km SSMF by Silicon MRR Enhanced 1.55- $\mu \text{m}$ III-V/SOI DML
Abstract:
The use of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance the modulation extinction ratio and dispersion tolerance of a directly modulated laser is experimentally investigated with a bit rate of 25 Gb/s as proposed for the next generation data center communications. The investigated system combines a 11-GHz 1.55- directly modulated hybrid III–V/SOI DFB laser realized by bonding III–V materials (InGaAlAs) on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and a silicon MRR also fabricated on SOI. Such a transmitter enables error-free transmission () at 25 Gb/s data rate over 2.5-km standard single mode fiber without dispersion compensation nor forward error correction. As both laser and MRR are fabricated on the SOI platform, they could be combined into a single device with enhanced performance, thus providing a cost-effective transmitter for short reach applications.
Autors: Valentina Cristofori;Francesco Da Ros;Oskars Ozolins;Mohamed E. Chaibi;Laurent Bramerie;Yunhong Ding;Xiaodan Pang;Alexandre Shen;Antonin Gallet;Guang-Hua Duan;Karim Hassan;Ségolene Olivier;Sergei Popov;Gunnar Jacobsen;Leif K. Oxenløwe;C
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 29, issue:12, pages: 960 - 963
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2DTriPnP: A Robust Two-Dimensional Method for Fine Visual Localization Using Google Streetview Database
Abstract:
The complete camera pose (location + orientation) of the Google street view (GSV) images is provided by Google. Hence, one can utilize this information to localize a query camera based on the projective geometry. The existing literature works either perform image retrieval-based rough location recognition or require high-computational power/specific features for three-dimensional fine localization. In this paper, we propose a robust 2-D method for outdoor image-based localization using the GSV database. Having found the nearest neighboring images (best matches) in the GSV database using image retrieval techniques or the GPS circle information, the proposed method can be applied for robust fine localization of pedestrians/vehicles. The proposed method first finds the common features among the three views, i.e., query view and two from the best matches. Next, for each common feature, a 2-D triangulation is performed using the retrieved database images to find the feature world coordinates. We call this procedure “2DTri.” Afterward, a novel set of nonlinear equations is solved to estimate the fine location of the query. The novel set of equations can be interpreted as a 2-D version of the well-known perspective n-point (PnP) problem, which we call “2DPnP.” Hence, the proposed method is named “2DTriPnP.” The 2DPnP step is performed in a robust way, which is more accurate and considerably less complex compared to the conventional RANSAC-based robust methods. 2DTriPnP will be demonstrated experimentally to show better localization performance compared to other state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Hamed Sadeghi;Shahrokh Valaee;Shahram Shirani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 66, issue:6, pages: 4678 - 4690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Analytical Analysis of Magnetic Field of Flux Reversal Linear-Rotary Permanent-Magnet Actuator
Abstract:
This paper develops a 3-D analytical model to compute the no-load magnetic-field distribution in a flux reversal linear-rotary permanent-magnet actuator (FR-LRPMA) with two permanent-magnet (PM) poles (PM_pole) and two ferromagnetic poles (Fe_pole) on each stator tooth. Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations are built assuming that the stator and the rotor are slotless and both the permeances of Fe_pole and PM_pole are the same. The tubular mover is transferred into a planar one using a curvature factor. Then a 2-D model and 3-D model for calculating the air-gap relative permeances are proposed considering the effect of slot and the permeance difference of Fe_pole and PM_pole, respectively. The expressions of 3-D magnetic flux density, cogging force, and cogging torque of the FR-LRPMA are subsequently derived and verified using the finite-element method.
Autors: Kaikai Guo;Shuhua Fang;Heyun Lin;Hui Yang;Yunkai Huang;Ping Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Electric Field Computation of Steeple Rooftop Houses Near HVDC Transmission Lines
Abstract:
The existence of residential houses will distort the ion flow field under high-voltage direct current transmission lines. High efficiency electric field computational method is required during the engineering design. In this paper, the surface charge method is applied in the space-charge-free electric field computation, and a half-analytical integration strategy is presented to accelerate the computational speed. Then, ion flow field around the house is computed based on Deutsch assumption. The calculation methods are validated by the experiment in the laboratory. Electric field intensity around the top edge of steeple rooftop is larger than other areas, and the field distribution characteristics on the steeple rooftop are significantly different from flat rooftop.
Autors: Donglai Wang;Tiebing Lu;Qinyuan Li;Bo Chen;Xuebao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D IC Interconnect Parasitic Capacitance Extraction With a Reformulated PGD Algorithm
Abstract:
Proper generalized decomposition (PGD) is a recently developed model-order reduction method based on the use of variable-separated representations. In this paper, space variable-separated PGD is applied on the 3-D capacitance extraction of interconnects in integrated circuits to reduce its computational complexity. To make the PGD solver feasible, the complex boundary conditions are simplified by a characteristic function technique. 3-D singular-value decomposition of the coefficient functions is avoided by using a reformulated PGD algorithm, and therefore, the proposed method can effectively deal with problems with inhomogeneous dielectric layers and dummy fills. Numerical examples are given to verify the method.
Autors: Yalan Li;Shuai Yan;Xiaoyu Xu;Pengfei Lyu;Zhuoxiang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Modeling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Uniform Earth-Ionosphere Cavity Using a Commercial FDTD Software Package
Abstract:
Extremely low frequency (3–3000 Hz) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in the (3-D) cavity composed of the earth’s crust and uniform ionospheric lossy layers is modeled using the finite-difference time-domain algorithm set in a commercial simulation software. EM propagation and attenuation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide are computed, and the Schumann resonance (SR) parameters are obtained from the spectra. The overall accuracy of the SR parameters surpasses 90%, despite a fairly coarse resolution of the system. We show that a commercial software can accurately and efficiently model such a large and complex geophysical system.
Autors: Christian Kwisanga;Coenrad J. Fourie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3275 - 3278
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Printed Substrate Integrated Slab Waveguide for Single-Mode Bandwidth Enhancement
Abstract:
This letter presents the implementation of a broadband substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) by an additive manufacturing technique. A 3-D printed material based on Ninjaflex filament has been realized by fused deposition modeling. By changing the infill percentage, printed materials with different dielectric properties have been fabricated and experimentally characterized. Two materials obtained from the same filament with different infill percentages have been used for the implementation of a substrate integrated slab waveguide (SISW), which allows increasing the single-mode bandwidth compared with that of a standard SIW. The experimental results for the fundamental and second modes of SIW and SISW show a 50% bandwidth enhancement.
Autors: Enrico Massoni;Lorenzo Silvestri;Gianluca Alaimo;Stefania Marconi;Maurizio Bozzi;Luca Perregrini;Ferdinando Auricchio;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 27, issue:6, pages: 536 - 538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Sub-Domain Analytical Model to Calculate Magnetic Flux Density in Induction Machines With Semiclosed Slots Under No-Load Condition
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel 3-D sub-domain analytical model is developed to determine magnetic flux distribution in single-cage induction machines (IMs) with skewed rotor bars under no-load condition in an effort to more detailed analysis of spatial harmonics. The proposed model, along with an optimization algorithm, is as an alternative solution to finite-element analysis (FEA) in optimizing the geometry of IMs. The analytical method is based on the resolution of 3-D Laplace and Poisson’s equations in cylindrical coordinates using the separation of variables method to calculate the magnetic vector potential for corresponding sub-domain. The proposed model includes the effect of slotting and tooth tips for the stator and rotor slots, which is usually neglected in a 2-D analysis due to the complexity of differential equations. Also, the proposed 3-D model can be used for any slot-pole combination in addition to considering the asymmetrical effect in the axial direction, which is a source of noise, vibration, and excessive losses in IMs. To evaluate the performance of the proposed 3-D analytical model, calculated magnetic-field distribution is compared with the results obtained from the 3-D FEA.
Autors: Aida Mollaeian;Eshaan Ghosh;Himavarsha Dhulipati;Jimi Tjong;Narayan C. Kar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D-MIMO With Massive Antennas Paves the Way to 5G Enhanced Mobile Broadband: From System Design to Field Trials
Abstract:
Three-dimensional (3D) multiple input and multiple output (3D-MIMO) with massive antennas is a key technology to achieve high spectral efficiency and user experienced data rate for the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system. To implement 3D-MIMO in 5G system, practical constraints on the product design should be considered. This paper proposes a systematic design for the 3D-MIMO product by considering the restrictions of both base band and the hardware, including cost, size, weight, and heat dissipation. The design has been implemented for 2.6-GHz time-division duplex band, and field trials have been conducted for performance validation with practical intercell interference in commercial network. The trial results show that this 3D-MIMO design can meet the spectral efficiency requirement of the 5G enhanced mobile broadband services. The performance gain of 3D-MIMO varies with the traffic load. When the traffic load is heavy, 3D-MIMO can enhance the cell throughput by 4~6.7 times. When the traffic load is low, the performance gain of this 3D-MIMO design decreases. The results from field trial also show that the performance of 3D-MIMO degrades in mobility scenarios, where further enhancement on acquiring instant channel status information are necessary to improve the robustness of 3D-MIMO to mobility.
Autors: Guangyi Liu;Xueying Hou;Jing Jin;Fei Wang;Qixing Wang;Yue Hao;Yuhong Huang;Xiaoyun Wang;Xiao Xiao;Ailin Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 35, issue:6, pages: 1222 - 1233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 35-GHz Wideband Circularly Polarized Patch Array on LTCC
Abstract:
A 35-GHz wideband circularly polarized (CP) patch array of elements using low-temperature cofired ceramic technology is presented. The widened 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is achieved by constructing a sequentially rotated CP patch array with small inner-element spacing in the antenna element. The antenna element consists of two close circular patches with diagonal perturbations, and the patches are rotated with respect to each other. The two patches are fed with equal amplitude and orthogonal phase difference using one probe, which has one vertical part and two different horizontal parts. The fabricated array with a dimension of mm3 shows wide −10-dB and 3-dB AR bandwidths of over 29.6% and 26%, respectively. The measured maximum gain of the four-element array is 9.3 dBi with slight fluctuations over 31–39 GHz frequency range.
Autors: Ming Du;Yuliang Dong;Jun Xu;Xiao Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3235 - 3240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 48-Mode Reconfigurable Design of SDF FFT Hardware Architecture Using Radix-32 and Radix-23 Design Approaches
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable (RC) fast Fourier transform (FFT) design in a systematic design scheme. The RC design bricks are mainly proposed to arbitrarily concatenate to support FFT-point required. Meanwhile, we show three developed design techniques, including six-type RC processing element, systematic first-in first-out reuse arrangement, and section-based twiddle factor generator to elaborate our FFT design. In a design/implementation example, it can support up to 2187 FFT-point manipulation and 48 RC modes. It also supports 32 operating modes defined in 3GPP-LTE standard. In application-specified integrated circuit implementation with TSMC 90-nm CMOS technology, our design work occupies a core area of 1.664 mm2 and consumes 35.2 mW under maximal clock frequency of 188.67 MHz. This paper also has outstanding design performance in terms of speed-area ratio and power-frequency ratio for comparison reference.
Autors: Xin-Yu Shih;Yue-Qu Liu;Hong-Ru Chou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1456 - 1467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Developments Are in Full Swing [Mobile Radio]
Abstract:
Nokia has successfully carried out the world's first connection based on the Verizon fifth-generation (V5G) technical forum (TF) interface, which is known as the industry-agreed specification for prestandard 5G applications. The test adds another key component to the development of 5G technologies and the execution of the first 5G applications, demonstrating the ability to provide fast-paced implementation, according to early standards, including device interoperability. At the end of 2016, Nokia introduced 4.5G Pro and announced plans for 4.9G, providing operators with the critical increases to capacity and speed that will be needed for future 5G operations.
Autors: Matthias Pätzold;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 4 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Field Trials: OFDM-Based Waveforms and Mixed Numerologies
Abstract:
Service diversity is expected in the upcoming fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks, which poses great challenges to the underlying waveforms to accommodate heterogeneous service requirements in a flexible way. By dividing the bandwidth into several subbands, each having a different numerology, this paper reports a field trial in time division duplex downlink conducted on a configurable test bed in a real-world environment for the performance evaluations of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based 5G waveform candidates, i.e., cyclically prefixed OFDM (CP-OFDM), windowing OFDM (W-OFDM), and filtered OFDM (f-OFDM), in the presence of mixed numerologies. Field trial results confirm the feasibility of mixed numerologies and reveal the impact of several important system parameters, e.g., guard bandwidth, data bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and transmit power. The results also suggest that f-OFDM outperforms CP-OFDM and W-OFDM in terms of both the spectrum efficiency and robustness in a high SNR regime, and the gain increases with a higher inter-numerology out-of-band interference. In some specific scenarios, ideal spectrum utilization can be realized by f-OFDM which completely removes the guard band.
Autors: Peng Guan;Dan Wu;Tingjian Tian;Jianwei Zhou;Xi Zhang;Liang Gu;Anass Benjebbour;Masashi Iwabuchi;Yoshihisa Kishiyama;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 35, issue:6, pages: 1234 - 1243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G-Enabled Cooperative Intelligent Vehicular (5GenCIV) Framework: When Benz Meets Marconi
Abstract:
As one of the most popular social media platforms today, Twitter provides people with an effective way to communicate and interact with each other. Through these interactions, influence among users gradually emerges and changes people's opinions. Although previous work has studied interpersonal influence as the probability of activating others during information diffusion, they ignore an important fact that information diffusion is the result of influence, while dynamic interactions among users produce influence. In this article, the authors propose a novel temporal influence model to learn users' opinion behaviors regarding a specific topic by exploring how influence emerges during communications. The experiments show that their model performs better than other influence models with different influence assumptions when predicting users' future opinions, especially for the users with high opinion diversity.
Autors: Xiang Cheng;Chen Chen;Wuxiong Zhang;Yang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 53 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G: A Tutorial Overview of Standards, Trials, Challenges, Deployment, and Practice
Abstract:
There is considerable pressure to define the key requirements of 5G, develop 5G standards, and perform technology trials as quickly as possible. Normally, these activities are best done in series but there is a desire to complete these tasks in parallel so that commercial deployments of 5G can begin by 2020. 5G will not be an incremental improvement over its predecessors; it aims to be a revolutionary leap forward in terms of data rates, latency, massive connectivity, network reliability, and energy efficiency. These capabilities are targeted at realizing high-speed connectivity, the Internet of Things, augmented virtual reality, the tactile internet, and so on. The requirements of 5G are expected to be met by new spectrum in the microwave bands (3.3–4.2 GHz), and utilizing large bandwidths available in mm-wave bands, increasing spatial degrees of freedom via large antenna arrays and 3-D MIMO, network densification, and new waveforms that provide scalability and flexibility to meet the varying demands of 5G services. Unlike the one size fits all 4G core networks, the 5G core network must be flexible and adaptable and is expected to simultaneously provide optimized support for the diverse 5G use case categories. In this paper, we provide an overview of 5G research, standardization trials, and deployment challenges. Due to the enormous scope of 5G systems, it is necessary to provide some direction in a tutorial article, and in this overview, the focus is largely user centric, rather than device centric. In addition to surveying the state of play in the area, we identify leading technologies, evaluating their strengths and weaknesses, and outline the key challenges ahead, with research test beds delivering promising performance but pre-commercial trials lagging behind the desired 5G targets.
Autors: Mansoor Shafi;Andreas F. Molisch;Peter J. Smith;Thomas Haustein;Peiying Zhu;Prasan De Silva;Fredrik Tufvesson;Anass Benjebbour;Gerhard Wunder;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 35, issue:6, pages: 1201 - 1221
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 6-DoF Haptic Rendering Using Continuous Collision Detection between Points and Signed Distance Fields
Abstract:
We present an algorithm for fast continuous collision detection between points and signed distance fields, and demonstrate how to robustly use it for 6-DoF haptic rendering of contact between objects with complex geometry. Continuous collision detection is often needed in computer animation, haptics, and virtual reality applications, but has so far only been investigated for polygon (triangular) geometry representations. We demonstrate how to robustly and continuously detect intersections between points and level sets of the signed distance field. We suggest using an octree subdivision of the distance field for fast traversal of distance field cells. We also give a method to resolve continuous collisions between point clouds organized into a tree hierarchy and a signed distance field, enabling rendering of contact between rigid objects with complex geometry. We investigate and compare two 6-DoF haptic rendering methods now applicable to point-versus-distance field contact for the first time: continuous integration of penalty forces, and a constraint-based method. An experimental comparison to discrete collision detection demonstrates that the continuous method is more robust and can correctly resolve collisions even under high velocities and during complex contact.
Autors: Hongyi Xu;Jernej Barbič;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 151 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 94-GHz CMOS Power Amplifiers Using Miniature Dual Y-Shaped Combiner With RL Load
Abstract:
This paper reports two four-way 94-GHz power amplifiers (PAs) for radar sensors in 90-nm CMOS technology. The first PA (PA1) comprises a two-stage common-source (CS) cascaded input stage with wideband -match input, interstage and output networks, followed by a two-way CS gain stage using Y-shaped divider and combiner, and a four-way CS output stage using dual Y-shaped divider and combiner. At each branch’s input terminal (i.e., drain terminal of the parallel CS output stage), the low-loss dual Y-shaped combiners can convert the serial RL load into the impedance for optimal output power () and power-added efficiency (PAE). To enhance power gain and PAE performance, the second PA (PA2) adopts a two-stage positive-feedback CS cascaded input stage using /2 transmission line. The circuit architecture of the gain and output stages is the same as that of PA1. PA1 achieves power gain of 16, 21, and 12 dB, respectively, at 60, 77, and 94 GHz. In addition, PA1 achieves of 13.2, 12, and 10.6 dBm, respectively, at 60, 77, and 94 GHz. The corresponding peak PAE is 20%, 16%, and 10.2%, respectively, at 60, 77, and 94 GHz. At 94 GHz, PA2 achieves power gain of 20 dB, of 16.8 dBm, and peak PAE of 16.4%. The overall performance of the two CMOS PAs is remarkable in -band and -band.
Autors: Yo-Sheng Lin;Van Kien Nguyen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1285 - 1298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Waveform Measurements Within Doherty Power Amplifier Under Operational Conditions
Abstract:
In this contribution, a gallium nitride-based 1 GHz Doherty amplifier with in situ waveform measurement capability is presented. With this measurement approach, the high frequency time-domain voltages and currents can be measured directly within the circuit. Therefore, directional couplers are integrated into the output matching network of the carrier and the peak amplifier. In contrast to other measurement techniques for investigating amplifiers under laboratory conditions, with this approach, a more in-depth investigation of realized power amplifiers can be carried out under operational conditions, e.g., for tuning. Especially, it is possible to characterize the interaction of the carrier and the peak amplifier. Hence, to the best knowledge of the authors the load modulation of a Doherty amplifier at the fundamental and the higher harmonics is measured for the first time.
Autors: Steffen Probst;Eckhard Denicke;Bernd Geck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 2192 - 2200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vitro Multi-Functional Microelectrode Array Featuring 59 760 Electrodes, 2048 Electrophysiology Channels, Stimulation, Impedance Measurement, and Neurotransmitter Detection Channels
Abstract:
Biological cells are characterized by highly complex phenomena and processes that are, to a great extent, interdependent. To gain detailed insights, devices designed to study cellular phenomena need to enable tracking and manipulation of multiple cell parameters in parallel; they have to provide high signal quality and high-spatiotemporal resolution. To this end, we have developed a CMOS-based microelectrode array system for in vitro applications that integrates six measurement and stimulation functions, the largest number to date. Moreover, the system features the largest active electrode array area to date ( mm2) to accommodate 59 760 electrodes, while its power consumption, noise characteristics, and spatial resolution (13.5-m electrode pitch) are comparable to the best state-of-the-art devices. The system includes: 2048 action potential (AP, bandwidth: 300 Hz–10 kHz) recording units, 32 local-field-potential (LFP, bandwidth: 1 Hz–300 Hz) recording units, 32 current recording units, 32 impedance measurement units, and 28 neurotransmitter detection units, in addition to the 16 dual-mode voltage-only or current/voltage-controlled stimulation units. The electrode array architecture is based on a switch matrix, which allows for connecting any measurement/stimulation unit to any electrode in the array and for performing different measurement/stimulation functions in parallel.
Autors: Jelena Dragas;Vijay Viswam;Amir Shadmani;Yihui Chen;Raziyeh Bounik;Alexander Stettler;Milos Radivojevic;Sydney Geissler;Marie Engelene J. Obien;Jan Müller;Andreas Hierlemann;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1576 - 1590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» crowddeliver: Planning City-Wide Package Delivery Paths Leveraging the Crowd of Taxis
Abstract:
Despite the great demand on and attempts at package express shipping services, online retailers have not yet had a practical solution to make such services profitable. In this paper, we propose an economical approach to express package delivery, i.e., exploiting relays of taxis with passengers to help transport package collectively, without degrading the quality of passenger services. Specifically, we propose a two-phase framework called crowddeliver for the package delivery path planning. In the first phase, we mine the historical taxi trajectory data offline to identify the shortest package delivery paths with estimated travel time given any Origin–Destination pairs. Using the paths and travel time as the reference, in the second phase we develop an online adaptive taxi scheduling algorithm to find the near-optimal delivery paths iteratively upon real-time requests and direct the package routing accordingly. Finally, we evaluate the two-phase framework using the real-world data sets, which consist of a point of interest, a road network, and the large-scale trajectory data, respectively, that are generated by 7614 taxis in a month in the city of Hangzhou, China. Results show that over 85% of packages can be delivered within 8 hours, with around 4.2 relays of taxis on average.
Autors: Chao Chen;Daqing Zhang;Xiaojuan Ma;Bin Guo;Leye Wang;Yasha Wang;Edwin Sha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 1478 - 1496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.015-mm Inductorless 32-GHz Clock Generator With Wide Frequency-Tuning Range in 28-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This brief illustrates the design of an inductorless high-speed clock generator. Compared to inductance-capacitance () oscillators, ring oscillators are used in order to achieve a wide frequency-tuning range with a small chip area. By employing a cascaded phase-locked loop (PLL) architecture, the phase noise of the oscillator can be effectively suppressed. The first PLL is implemented with high-voltage devices under 1.8-V supply to provide a clean reference for the second PLL. The second PLL consists of only low-voltage devices, with a supply voltage of 0.9 V for high-speed operation. Following the second PLL, a clock doubler multiplies the PLL output clock by a factor of 2, which avoids power-consuming high-frequency clock dividers. In order to minimize any mismatch effects, special layout techniques are employed for the second voltage-controlled oscillator and the clock doubler. The prototype chip was fabricated in 28-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and it occupies an active area of only 0.015 mm2. The proposed PLL achieves a maximum output frequency of 32 GHz and consumes a total power of 30 mW, exhibiting a power efficiency of 0.9 mW/GHz.
Autors: Gyu-Seob Jeong;Wooseok Kim;Jaejin Park;Taeik Kim;Hojin Park;Deog-Kyoon Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 655 - 659
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.035-pJ/bit/dB 20-Gb/s Adaptive Linear Equalizer With an Adaptation Time of 2.68
Abstract:
A 20-Gb/s adaptive linear equalizer with a coefficient fast-converging method is presented. By using the asynchronous sampling technique, the power dissipation of the circuits, realizing the adaptation method, can be reduced. However, the equalization coefficients require a considerable amount of time to be determined. To shorten the asynchronous sampling time, the high-frequency gain of the linear equalizer is calibrated prior to the low-frequency one. With a 20-Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence of , the measured bit-error-rates are all less than 10−12 for channel loss from −7.98 to −18.3 dB. Moreover, the equalization coefficients are determined within 2.68 . Fabricated in a 40-nm CMOS technology, this equalizer totally consumes 12.8 mW from a 1.1-V supply, of which only 4.9 mW dissipates in the circuits, realizing the proposed method. The calculated figure-of-merit is 0.035-pJ/bit/dB.
Autors: Kuan-Yu Chen;Wei-Yung Chen;Shen-Iuan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 645 - 649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.42-mW 1-Mb/s 3- to 4-GHz Transceiver in 0.18- $\mu \text{m}$ CMOS With Flexible Efficiency, Bandwidth, and Distance Control for IoT Applications
Abstract:
This paper describes a short-range transceiver architecture using frequency-hopped sinusoidal OOK pulses. Since signal bandwidth does not necessarily have to satisfy >500 MHz requirement like conventional ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, the proposed transceiver named as a very-wide band (VWB) transceiver offers degrees of freedom to choose an optimum operation duty cycle in terms of energy efficiency, bandwidth efficiency, and communication range, while providing much lower operation duty cycle than that of narrow band OOK transceiver. The VWB transmission significantly relaxes the complexity of transceiver design without requiring advanced CMOS technology. In the transmitter, pulse generation circuit design is simplified with the duty-cycled sinusoidal signal compared to that in the impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) transmitter. In the receiver, an asynchronous energy detection topology is proposed to achieve robust energy detection by overcoming the synchronization issue as well as the saturation problem of the integrator circuit. A prototype 3-to-4 GHz VWB transceiver is implemented in 0.18 CMOS. The transceiver achieves the communication distance of >2 m at 1 Mb/s data rate with the peak-to-peak pulse amplitude of only 300 mV and the duty cycle of 0.6%, consuming 0.42 mW from a 1.8 V supply.
Autors: Dang Liu;Xuwen Ni;Ranran Zhou;Woogeun Rhee;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1479 - 1494
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2-GS/s 8-bit Two-Step SAR ADC in 65-nm CMOS With Passive Residue Transfer
Abstract:
A high-speed 2b–1b/cycle two-step successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) exploiting the passive residue transfer technique is reported. The removal of the residue amplifier results in savings in the time and power consumed by the residue transfer process. The kT/C noise and potential bandwidth mismatch associated with the passive residue transfer are analyzed and also verified by circuit simulations. The use of the 2b–1b/cycle hybrid conversion scheme with an appropriate resolution partition further enhances the conversion speed. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, the prototype ADC measured a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio of 43.7 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range of 58.1 dB for a near-Nyquist input. The total power consumption of the ADC is 5 mW and the achieved figure of merit is 35 fJ/conversion-step, all measured at a sample rate of 1.2 GS/s.
Autors: Hai Huang;Ling Du;Yun Chiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1551 - 1562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.9-mm-Precision 20-GHz Direct-Sampling Receiver Using Time-Extension Method for Indoor Localization
Abstract:
This paper presents an impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver design for precise wireless ranging using a newly proposed direct sampling with time-extension (DTE) method. To overcome the problems encountered in high-speed sampling for impulse signals, the DTE method, which exploits the characteristics of an impulse, is proposed. The proposed method performs high-speed sampling only during the period when short pulses exist, and quantizes the sampled signal during the dead time where no pulses exist. The high-speed impulse signal can be easily digitized using low-speed analog-to-digital converter. We designed and fabricated the IR-UWB receiver using a 65-nm CMOS process. The measurement result shows a 1.9-mm resolution for indoor wireless ranging within a 1-m range. The receiver has a power consumption of 70 mW at 1.2 V and energy efficiency of 1554 nJ/pulse.
Autors: Hong Gul Han;Byung Gyu Yu;Tae Wook Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1509 - 1520
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100 MHz PRF IR-UWB CMOS Transceiver With Pulse Shaping Capabilities and Peak Voltage Detector
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-rate IR-UWB transceiver chipset implemented in a 130-nm CMOS technology for WBAN and biomedical applications in the 3.1–4.9 GHz band. The transmitter is based on a pulse synthesizer and an analytical up-converted Gaussian pulse is used to predict its settings. Its measured peak-to-peak output voltage is equal to on a 100 load for a central frequency of 4 GHz, and a supply voltage of 1.2 V, which gives an emitted energy per pulse of 0.64 pJ. The receiver is a non-coherent architecture based on an LNA followed by a peak-voltage detector. A BER of 10−3 is measured for a 3.1–4.9 GHz input peak-to-peak pulse amplitude of 1.1 mV, which corresponds to a sensitivity of −85.8 dBm at 1 Mb/s and gives a communication range estimated to 1.9 m.
Autors: Remy Vauche;Eloi Muhr;Olivier Fourquin;Sylvain Bourdel;Jean Gaubert;Nicolas Dehaese;Stephane Meillere;Herve Barthelemy;Laurent Ouvry;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1612 - 1625
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10T-4MTJ Nonvolatile Ternary CAM Cell for Reliable Search Operation and a Compact Area
Abstract:
Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is widely used in high-speed searching applications. Recently, zero standby power has been in high demand for battery-powered devices such as mobile phones, Internet of Things, and wearable devices. Thus, several nonvolatile TCAM (NV-TCAM) cells have been researched to realize zero standby power. However, they suffer from low reliability in search operation. We propose a 10T-4MTJ NV-TCAM cell that significantly improves the reliability of search operation utilizing the differential sensing and positive feedback of cross-coupled PMOSs. The advantages of the proposed cell are verified by HSPICE Monte Carlo simulations using industry-compatible 45-nm model parameters. With a cell area of 2.78 (1.12 times smaller than a SRAM-based TCAM cell) and a search delay of 1 ns, the proposed cell satisfies a target search pass yield of (98.24% yield for an 18-Mb TCAM macro), whereas the previous cells achieved only 3.3 and .
Autors: Byungkyu Song;Taehui Na;Jung Pill Kim;Seung H. Kang;Seong-Ook Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 700 - 704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1600-Element Dual-Frequency Electronically Reconfigurable Reflectarray at X/Ku-Band
Abstract:
A dual-frequency reconfigurable reflectarray (RRA) is proposed and verified experimentally. The RRA consists of 1600 electronically controllable elements. By integrating only a single PIN diode, the proposed element is capable to operate at two working frequencies with 1-bit phase resolution. The dual-frequency mechanism is explained through the mode analysis, and a parametric study is performed to provide guidelines for determining the two working frequencies. As an example, a 1600-element RRA prototype is realized by assembling five identical subarrays. An field programmable gate array control board is used to achieve real-time phase control of each element individually. The experimental results show that the broadside gains of the RRA are 29.3 and 30.8 dBi at 11.1 and 14.3 GHz, respectively. Excellent beam scanning performance is also obtained at both frequencies.
Autors: Huanhuan Yang;Fan Yang;Xiangyu Cao;Shenheng Xu;Jun Gao;Xibi Chen;Maokun Li;Tong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3024 - 3032
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 172 $\mu$W Compressively Sampled Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Readout ASIC With Heart Rate Estimation Directly From Compressively Sampled Data
Abstract:
A compressive sampling (CS) photoplethysmographic (PPG) readout with embedded feature extraction to estimate heart rate (HR) directly from compressively sampled data is presented. It integrates a low-power analog front end together with a digital back end to perform feature extraction to estimate the average HR over a 4 s interval directly from compressively sampled PPG data. The application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) supports uniform sampling mode (1x compression) as well as CS modes with compression ratios of 8x, 10x, and 30x. CS is performed through nonuniformly subsampling the PPG signal, while feature extraction is performed using least square spectral fitting through Lomb–Scargle periodogram. The ASIC consumes 172 W of power from a 1.2 V supply while reducing the relative LED driver power consumption by up to 30 times without significant loss of relevant information for accurate HR estimation.
Autors: Venkata Rajesh Pamula;Jose Manuel Valero-Sarmiento;Long Yan;Alper Bozkurt;Chris Van Hoof;Nick Van Helleputte;Refet Firat Yazicioglu;Marian Verhelst;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 487 - 496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.24-mW, 61.8-dB SNDR, 20-MS/s Pipelined ADC With Charge-Pump-Based Dynamic Biasing for Power Reduction in Op Amp Sharing
Abstract:
A high-speed dynamic biasing technique is presented for reducing op amp power in discrete-time, multistage, analog circuits employing op amp sharing. To exploit typical power scaling in such circuits, a charge pump, of which the on-times of up and down currents are controlled by two comparators, performs rapid change of the op amp bias condition between a low-current mode and a high-current mode during nonoverlapping clock periods of the two phase clocks. The errors caused by finite comparator delay are compensated for by embedding intentional offset voltages in the comparators, which are implemented by using asymmetric differential input pairs in the comparators. To verify the efficacy of the proposed biasing technique, an 11-b pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has been implemented using 0.15- devices in a 28-nm CMOS technology. With a 20-MHz sampling clock, the ADC achieves a 61.8-dB SNDR while consuming a 2.24-mW power from a 1.8-V supply. The MDAC and ADC power are reduced by about 45% and 30%, respectively, compared with a conventional pipelined ADC employing an op amp in each MDAC. Owing to the simple structure of the proposed dynamic biasing, the prototype ADC occupies only 0.052 mm2.
Autors: Je-Kwang Cho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1368 - 1379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4-GHz ZigBee Transmitter Using a Function-Reuse Class-F DCO-PA and an ADPLL Achieving 22.6% (14.5%) System Efficiency at 6-dBm (0-dBm) $P_{\mathrm {out}}$
Abstract:
This paper describes a sub-1-V 2.4-GHz ZigBee transmitter (TX) with scalable output power () and system efficiency. It features a function-reuse class-F topology unifying the digital-controlled oscillator (DCO) and power amplifier (PA), designated as DCO-PA. Unlike the existing current-reuse topologies that rely on transistor stacking, here the power consumption of the DCO and PA-driver is absorbed into the DCO-PA without losing the voltage headroom, while allowing a low supply voltage. The DCO-PA also benefits from a six-port transformer with customized coupling coefficients and turn ratios to jointly perform the functions of resonant tank and output matching network, saving the chip area. A fractional-N all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) realizes a two-point data modulation. Its phase-interpolated time-to-digital converter prevents time-consuming calibration. The entire TX fabricated in 65-nm CMOS occupies a 0.39-mm active area. The standalone DCO-PA shows a peak efficiency of 26.2% at a 6-dBm , and a back-off efficiency of 17.7% at a −4.3 dBm under a scalable supply voltage (0.3–0.7 V). The system efficiency, including the ADPLL, is 22.6% (14.5%) at 6-dBm (0-dBm) . The HS-OQPSK modulated output complies with the ZigBee spectral mask with an adequate margin and the error vector magnitude is 2.29%.
Autors: Xingqiang Peng;Jun Yin;Pui-In Mak;Wei-Han Yu;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1495 - 1508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 23-mW Face Recognition Processor with Mostly-Read 5T Memory in 40-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents an energy-efficient face detection and recognition processor aimed at mobile applications. The algorithmic optimizations including hybrid search scheme for face detection significantly reduce computational complexity and architecture modification such as feature memory segmentation and further reduce energy consumption. We utilize characteristics of the implemented algorithm and propose a 5T SRAM design heavily optimized for mostly-read operations. Systematic reset and write schemes allow for reliable data write operation. The 5T SRAM reduces the cell area by 7.2% compared to a conventional 6T bit cell in logic rule while significantly improving read margin and voltage scalability due to a decoupled read path. The fabricated processor consumes only 23 mW while processing both face detection and recognition in real time at 5.5 frames/s throughput.
Autors: Dongsuk Jeon;Qing Dong;Yejoong Kim;Xiaolong Wang;Shuai Chen;Hao Yu;David Blaauw;Dennis Sylvester;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1628 - 1642
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 250-Mb/s to 6-Gb/s Referenceless Clock and Data Recovery Circuit With Clock Frequency Multiplier
Abstract:
This brief describes the design and implementation of a 250-Mb/s to 6-Gb/s single-loop referenceless clock and data recovery circuit. The clock frequency multiplier and the referenceless frequency acquisition circuit are used to cover a wide-range data rate. The clock frequency multiplier is proposed to generate the 6-GHz clock with low jitter. In addition, the voltage-controlled oscillator operates at 1/5-rate frequency of the sampling clock, which has a merit of low power consumption. The proposed circuit achieves 9.56-ps rms jitter, consumes 13.2 mW at 6 Gb/s, and occupies 0.0944 mm2 in a 65-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Ja-Young Kim;Junyoung Song;Jungtaek You;Sewook Hwang;Sang-Geun Bae;Chulwoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 650 - 654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28-GHz SiGe BiCMOS PA With 32% Efficiency and 23-dBm Output Power
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a two-stage, four-way combined power amplifier (PA) operating in the 27–31-GHz frequency range in 180-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The output network of the PA employs spiral transformers and a microstrip T-combiner to realize low-loss two-way series, two-way parallel power combining. With the help of a lumped-element transformer model, we present a co-optimization technique for the transformer and the adjoining matching components to minimize the power loss of the full output network. The design methodology is applicable for realizing an arbitrary impedance at the device plane with a K-way series, M-way parallel combiner. The efficacy of this technique is demonstrated by the realization of a PA, which has 27.6-dB gain, 23.2-dBm, 1-dB compressed output power, 32.7% power-added efficiency (PAE) at 1-dB compression, and 15% PAE at 6-dB back off. Linearity measurements show less than 4° amplitude-modulation to phase-modulation distortion below 3-dB back off and less than −32-dBc intermodulation product at 6-dB back off.
Autors: Anirban Sarkar;Farshid Aryanfar;Brian A. Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1680 - 1686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Hybrid Cell Method for Induction Heating Problems
Abstract:
A novel hybrid approach for solving induction heating problems is presented. The electrothermal problem is discretized by the cell method (CM) and coupled to the boundary element method to avoid the air region meshing. The interface coupling is obtained by introducing a new topological framework for the CM, which is the augmented dual grid. The main advantage is that the electromagnetic hybrid formulation for computing time-harmonic eddy currents results in a partly dense indefinite linear system, which is solved by a fast TFQMR iterative method. The transient thermal problem, weakly coupled to the electrical one, is solved by the method under convection and radiation boundary conditions. The hybrid approach shows to be very accurate by comparison with third-order 2-D FEM on an axisymmetric test case. The applicability of the method then extends to full 3-D models with limited computing resources.
Autors: F. Moro;L. Codecasa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Topographic-Relief-Correlated Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Simulator for Forest Bidirectional Reflectance Estimation
Abstract:
Understanding the physical processes that affect electromagnetic waves within forests is a key to better analysis of global environmental change. In this letter, we propose a 3-D vector model called the topographic-relief-correlated Monte Carlo (MC) radiative transfer simulator for estimating the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of a forest with complex terrain relief. Unlike existing models, this model takes into account rugged terrain conditions by modeling the ground surface as a bilinear surface interpolated from a digital elevation model. The proposed model is compared with the well-performing MC model FLiES for validation, and good agreement is obtained. Forest BRF estimations for six different terrain relief conditions are derived, and these BRFs have reasonable variation according to ground conditions.
Autors: Sheng-Ye Jin;Junichi Susaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 964 - 968
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30-W 90% Efficiency Dual-Mode Controlled DC–DC Controller With Power Over Ethernet Interface for Power Device
Abstract:
A dual-mode controlled dc–dc controller with power over Ethernet (PoE) interface for power device (PD) is presented that is designed to support drawing power either from an Ethernet cable or from an external auxiliary supply support (ASS). PoE interface supports all the functions that comply with the IEEE802.3af/at standard. Based on bandgap reference structure, a detection comparator is provided to detect input voltage without extra voltage reference. Using a low offset voltage amplifier, a low-loss current-limiting technique is proposed to achieve a high-precision current-limit point. Based on a high-speed comparator and two timing capacitors, an oscillator (OSC) is implemented for better accuracy, and provides the maximum duty cycle () and external frequency synchronization. The chip is fabricated in a 0.5- 65 V BCD process and occupies a die size (with pads) of mm2. The experimental results are measured for an active clamp forward converter with a wide range of dc input voltages from 33 to 57 V, an output voltage of 12 V, and an output power of 30 W. The chip achieves peak power efficiency of 90% and 90.63% on DC and ASS, respectively. The load regulation at different input voltages can be measured to be within ±0.11%. Measurements further show that the peak-to-peak ripple voltage of the chip is 161 mV and the recovery time is less than 1.2 ms for the 2-A load step.
Autors: Yongyuan Li;Zhangming Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 1943 - 1953
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 34-pJ/bit Area-Efficient ASK Demodulator Based on Switching-Mode Signal Shaping
Abstract:
This brief presents a new amplitude shift-keying (ASK) demodulator for biomedical implants based on waveform shaping on detected envelope signals. The proposed demodulator incorporates a novel switching-mode signal shaper, which can operate with much lower power consumption. The design does not require any comparator or Schmitt trigger and operates with a very low number of elements; thus, the silicon area is highly saved. With a carrier frequency of 5 MHz and a data rate of 500 kb/s, the proposed ASK demodulator can extract data with modulation indexes down to 5%, whereas the bit-error rate can be as low as 10−5 depending on the input signal-to-noise ratio. Using a 0.18- CMOS process, the demodulator occupies a die size of 920 . The average power consumption of the proposed demodulator is only 17 by physical measurement on silicon.
Autors: Mehdi Lotfi Navaii;Mohsen Jalali;Hamed Sadjedi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 640 - 644
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3T1R Nonvolatile TCAM Using MLC ReRAM for Frequent-Off Instant-On Filters in IoT and Big-Data Processing
Abstract:
Existing nonvolatile ternary content-addressable-memory (nvTCAM) suffers from limited word-length (WDL), large write-energy ( and search-energy (, and large cell area (A). This paper develops a 3T1R nvTCAM cell using a single multiple-level cell (MLC)-resistive RAM (ReRAM) device to achieve long WDL, lower and , and reduced cell area. Two peripheral control schemes were developed, dual-replica-row self-timed and invalid-entry power consumption suppression (IEPCS), for the suppression of dc current in 3T1R nvTCAM cells in order to reduce . Two versions of the IEPCS scheme were developed (basic and charge-recycle-controlled) to alter the tradeoff between area overhead and power consumption in the updating of invalid-bits. A b 3T1R nvTCAM macro was fabricated using back-end-of-line ReRAM under 90-nm CMOS process. The fabricated MLC-based 3T1R nvTCAM macro achieved sub-1-ns search-delay and sub-6-ns wake-up time with supply voltage of 1 V and WDL = 64 b.
Autors: Meng-Fan Chang;Chien-Chen Lin;Albert Lee;Yen-Ning Chiang;Chia-Chen Kuo;Geng-Hau Yang;Hsiang-Jen Tsai;Tien-Fu Chen;Shyh-Shyuan Sheu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1664 - 1679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 400 MHz Wireless Neural Signal Processing IC With 625 $\times$ On-Chip Data Reduction and Reconfigurable BFSK/QPSK Transmitter Based on Sequential Injection Locking
Abstract:
An 8-channel wireless neural signal processing IC, which can perform real-time spike detection, alignment, and feature extraction, and wireless data transmission is proposed. A reconfigurable BFSK/QPSK transmitter (TX) at MICS/MedRadio band is incorporated to support different data rate requirement. By using an Exponential Component-Polynomial Component (EC-PC) spike processing unit with an incremental principal component analysis (IPCA) engine, the detection of neural spikes with poor SNR is possible while achieving data reduction. For the TX, a dual-channel at 401 MHz and 403.8 MHz are supported by applying sequential injection locked techniques while attaining phase noise of 102 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset. From the measurement, error vector magnitude (EVM) of 4.60%/9.55% with power amplifier (PA) output power of 15 dBm is achieved for the QPSK at 8 Mbps and the BFSK at 12.5 kbps. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS with an active area of 1 mm, the design consumes a total current of 55.6 mA with a maximum energy efficiency of 0.7 nJ/b.
Autors: Kok-Hin Teng;Tong Wu;Xiayun Liu;Zhi Yang;Chun-Huat Heng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 547 - 557
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.8-Gb/s Adaptive Integrating Duobinary DFE Receiver for Multi-Drop Memory Interface
Abstract:
This paper describes a 5.8 Gb/s adaptive integrating duobinary decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) for use in next-generation multi-drop memory interface. The proposed receiver combines traditional interface techniques like the integrated signaling and the duobinary signaling, in which the duobinary signal is generated by current integration in the receiver. It can address issues such as input data dependence during integration, need for precursor equalization, high equalizer gain boosting, and sensitivity to high-frequency noise. The proposed receiver also alleviates DFE critical timing to provide gain in speed, and embed DFE taps in duobinary decoding to provide gain in power and area. The adaptation for adjusting the equalizer common-mode level, duobinary zero level, tap coefficient values, and timing recovery is incorporated. The proposed DFE receiver was fabricated in a 45 nm CMOS process, whose measurement results indicated that it worked at 5.8 Gb/s speed in a four-drop channel configuration with seven slave ICs, and the bathtub curve shows 36% open for bit error rate.
Autors: Hyun-Wook Lim;Sung-Won Choi;Jeong-Keun Ahn;Woong-Ki Min;Sang-Kyu Lee;Chang-Hoon Baek;Jae-Youl Lee;Gyoo-Cheol Hwang;Young-Hyun Jun;Bai-Sun Kong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1563 - 1575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-b, 800-MS/s, 3.62-mW Nyquist Rate AC-Coupled VCO-Based ADC in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A Nyquist voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architecture is proposed for ac-coupled systems that are commonly used in high-speed wireline and wireless communications. The proposed ADC utilizes a built-in high-pass filter as an analog differentiator, replacing the digital differentiator in conventional oversampling VCO-based ADCs. As a result, it avoids quantization noise shaping and achieves wideband Nyquist operation, inherited first-order antialiasing filtering, and improved VCO linearity without calibration. Analyses and simulations of various circuit nonidealities’ effects on the proposed ADC architecture are also provided. The ADC prototype achieves a peak SNDR of 34 dB and an SFDR of 50 dB with over 400-MHz input bandwidth and a sampling rate of 800 MS/s. It occupies an active area of 0.01 mm2 and consumes 3.62 mW in 65-nm CMOS.
Autors: Mohsen Hassanpourghadi;Praveen Kumar Sharma;Mike Shuo-Wei Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1354 - 1367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Barrier Controlled Charge Plasma-Based TFET With Gate Engineering for Ambipolar Suppression and RF/Linearity Performance Improvement
Abstract:
To address the fabrication complexity and cost of nanoscale devices, a dual material control gate charge-plasma-based tunnel FET (DMCG-CPTFET) is presented for the first time for the suppression of ambipolarity and improvement of analog/radio frequency (RF), and linearity performance. The formation of p+ source and n+ drain regions in DMCG-CPTFET is done by the deposition of platinum (work- eV) and hafnium (work- eV) materials, respectively, over the silicon body. Hence, the proposed device avoids doping control issues, random dopant fluctuations, and it neither needs abrupt doping nor high thermal budget, which makes fabrication process simpler. In DMCG-CPTFET, the gate is divided into three segments, namely, tunneling gate (M1), control gate (M2), and auxiliary gate (M3) with their equivalent work functions as , , and , respectively. However, we have explored three different combinations of work-functions to achieve better performance in terms of DC, analog/RF, and linearity metrics. In various possibilities of devices, ATLAS device simulations show that the DMCG-CPTFET attains optimum result with , where is used at source side to improve the ON-state current, whereas (same as ) is considered at drain side in order to suppress the ambipolarity.
Autors: Kaushal Nigam;Sunil Pandey;Pravin N. Kondekar;Dheeraj Sharma;Pawan Kumar Parte;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 2751 - 2757
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Behavioral Handwriting Model for Static and Dynamic Signature Synthesis
Abstract:
The synthetic generation of static handwritten signatures based on motor equivalence theory has been recently proposed for biometric applications. Motor equivalence divides the human handwriting action into an effector dependent cognitive level and an effector independent motor level. The first level has been suggested by others as an engram, generated through a spatial grid, and the second has been emulated with kinematic filters. Our paper proposes a development of this methodology in which we generate dynamic information and provide a unified comprehensive synthesizer for both static and dynamic signature synthesis. The dynamics are calculated by lognormal sampling of the 8-connected continuous signature trajectory, which includes, as a novelty, the pen-ups. The forgery generation imitates a signature by extracting the most perceptually relevant points of the given genuine signature and interpolating them. The capacity to synthesize both static and dynamic signatures using a unique model is evaluated according to its ability to adapt to the static and dynamic signature inter- and intra-personal variability. Our highly promising results suggest the possibility of using the synthesizer in different areas beyond the generation of unlimited databases for biometric training.
Autors: Miguel A. Ferrer;Moises Diaz;Cristina Carmona-Duarte;Aythami Morales;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 39, issue:6, pages: 1041 - 1053
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bottom-Up/Top-Down Hybrid Algorithm for Model-Based Building Detection in Single Very High Resolution SAR Image
Abstract:
Building detection from high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is an essential issue for many SAR applications in urban areas. In this letter, we propose a novel bottom-up/top-down hybrid algorithm for model-based building detection from single very high resolution (VHR) SAR image. First, the building model is generated and described by a set of extraction criteria, which restrict the spatial layout of a building and its primitive features. Specifically, the rectangles of different intensity levels are extracted from the SAR image as primitive features. Then the bottom-up stage proposes building candidates composed by extracted rectangles, and the top-down step predicts building candidates composed by weak features omitted in the primitive extraction. After that, all candidates are verified through false alarm detection. Under this framework, the detection performances can be greatly improved especially in dense built-up areas. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental results obtained from real VHR SAR images.
Autors: Bo Liu;Kan Tang;Jian Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 926 - 930
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Breakthrough in Tumor Localization: Combining Tactile Sensing and Ultrasound to Improve Tumor Localization in Robotics-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery
Abstract:
Robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RAMIS) helps surgeons to avoid manually palpating organs to locate subsurface tumors. One solution has been to use ultrasound, but it is not always reliable. Tactile sensing, however, has the potential to augment ultrasound to improve tumor localization, but there are no existing RAMIS instruments that employ both modalities.
Autors: Anish S. Naidu;Michael D. Naish;Rajni V. Patel;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 54 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Differentially Fed Dual-Polarized Planar Antenna
Abstract:
A novel broadband differentially fed dual-polarized planar antenna is proposed in this communication. The antenna is composed of two dual-dipole elements, each of which is differentially fed by two coaxial cables through a short stub. Four pairs of parasitic elements are introduced to enhance the bandwidth. Both the dual-dipole elements and the parasitic elements are etched on the same substrate, making the antenna feature a planar configuration. The antenna achieves a 15-dB differential impedance bandwidth of 45% ( dB), a high isolation of 45 dB, an antenna gain of ~9 dBi, and a half-power beamwidth of 65° ± 8°.
Autors: Yuehui Cui;Xiaona Gao;RongLin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3231 - 3234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband ML-FMA for 3-D Periodic Green’s Function in 2-D Lattice Using Ewald Summation
Abstract:
A periodic fast multipole algorithm (P-FMA) is devised for evaluating 3-D periodic Green’s function (PGF) for a 2-D lattice which can be used to solve scattering by a structure with 2-D periodicity. The introduction of periodicity in the Green’s function formulation produces image sources at each lattice site. Like multilevel FMA (ML-FMA), P-FMA takes advantage of the distance between image sources and observation points to factorize the field using multipoles. By substituting known factorizations of the free-space Green’s function into the expression for PGF, one can isolate the summation over the lattice into the translation phase of the FMA. For both plane wave and multipole factorizations, a common term known as lattice constant appears. The lattice constant is an infinite sum over the lattice which does not converge absolutely when expressed as a spatial sum. Using the Ewald summation technique, the lattice constants can be evaluated with exponential convergence and high accuracy. The resulting P-FMA is between and in memory use and computational complexity, depending on the object size relative to the wavelength.
Autors: Michael Wei;Weng C. Chew;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3134 - 3145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Calibration Setup for IEC 61850-9-2 Devices
Abstract:
The working principle and the architecture of a calibration system for devices operating with the IEC 61850-9-2 standard are described. Two different types of devices are considered: stand-alone merging units (SAMUs) used to retrofit conventional transformers in power network substations and commercial test sets suited for nonconventional voltage and current sensor calibration in the field. An SAMU is essentially an analog-to-digital converter delivering its results in the IEC 61850-9-2 format. The functionalities of the test set evaluated here are the analog signal generation (voltage and current) and their synchronous IEC 61850-9-2 representation. This paper presents a calibration setup that has been applied to both types of devices.
Autors: Marco Agustoni;Alessandro Mortara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 66, issue:6, pages: 1124 - 1130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cascaded Coupled Inductor-Reverse High Step-Up Converter Integrating Three-Winding Coupled Inductor and Diode–Capacitor Technique
Abstract:
This paper introduces a cascaded high step-up converter realized with a tightly coupled three-winding coupled inductor. Compared with existing high step-up converters, the proposed converter features that the smaller the turns ratio, the larger the conversion gain. So, the name coupled inductor-reverse is given to represent reverse-coupled inductor principle of operation. In addition, diode–capacitor circuit is introduced to not only recycle leakage energy to output, but also further lift voltage conversion gain. This paper illustrates operation principle of the proposed converter, discusses effect of leakage inductance on voltage gain, and deduces voltage and current stresses of components. Finally, a prototype rated at 400 W has been established, and experimental results verify correctness of the above theoretical analysis.
Autors: Fei Li;Hongchen Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 13, issue:3, pages: 1121 - 1130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Characterization of Lyapunov Inequalities for Stability of Switched Systems
Abstract:
We study stability criteria for discrete-time switched systems and provide a meta-theorem that characterizes all Lyapunov theorems of a certain canonical type. For this purpose, we investigate the structure of sets of LMIs that provide a sufficient condition for stability. Various such conditions have been proposed in the literature in the past 15 years. We prove in this note that a family of language-theoretic conditions recently provided by the authors encapsulates all the possible LMI conditions, thus putting a conclusion to this research effort. As a corollary, we show that it is PSPACE-complete to recognize whether a particular set of LMIs implies stability of a switched system. Finally, we provide a geometric interpretation of these conditions, in terms of existence of an invariant set.
Autors: Raphaël M. Jungers;Amir Ali Ahmadi;Pablo A. Parrilo;Mardavij Roozbehani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 3062 - 3067
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Weighted Quantized Kernel Recursive Least Squares Algorithms
Abstract:
In this brief, a class of weighted quantized kernel recursive least squares (WQKRLS) algorithms is proposed to efficiently improve the performance of online applications. In the proposed WQKRLS, an online vector quantization with weighted outputs is incorporated into quantized kernel recursive least squares. The resulting desired outputs are smoothed by exponential weights. In addition, the members of the dictionary are updated by the steepest descent method for further performance improvement. Simulations illustrate the superior performance of the proposed WQKRLS.
Autors: Shiyuan Wang;Wanli Wang;Shukai Duan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 730 - 734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Closed-Loop Readout Configuration for Mode-Localized Resonant MEMS Sensors
Abstract:
This letter presents the first experimental results on the closed-loop characterization of a mode-localized microelectromechanical resonator system. Comparisons between the closed-loop oscillator approach and the open-loop frequency sweep approach show good agreement of output metrics including the amplitude ratios and mode frequencies. This new approach enables real-time measurements using emerging mode-localized resonant sensors and represents an important step toward realizing sensors based on this measurement principle. [2016-0307]
Autors: Chun Zhao;Milind Pandit;Boqian Sun;Guillermo Sobreviela;Xudong Zou;Ashwin Seshia;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 26, issue:3, pages: 501 - 503
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Compatible Ultracompact Silicon Photonic Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer with Misaligned Sidewall Bragg Gratings
Abstract:
We experimentally and via simulations demonstrate ultracompact single-stage and cascaded optical add-drop multiplexers using misaligned sidewall Bragg grating in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer for the silicon-on-insulator platform. The single-stage configuration has a device footprint of 400  90 , and the cascaded configuration has a footprint of 400   125 . The proposed designs have 3-dB bandwidths of 6 nm and extinction ratios of 25 dB and 51 dB, respectively, and have been fabricated for the transverse electric mode. A minimum lithographic feature size of 80 nm is used in our design, which is within the limitation of 193 nm deep ultraviolet lithography.
Autors: Md Ghulam Saber;Zhenping Xing;David Patel;Eslam El-Fiky;Nicolás Abadía;Yun Wang;Maxime Jacques;M. Morsy-Osman;David V. Plant;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Ultrawideband Pulse Generator for 3–5 GHz Applications
Abstract:
A low-power ultrawideband (UWB) pulse generator based on pulsed oscillator architecture for 3–5 GHz applications is proposed. The pulsed oscillator is improved, so it realizes binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Unlike ON–OFF keying or pulse-position modulation (PPM), BPSK can scramble the spectrum, so it can be used in high pulse rate applications without having spectral line problem. The signal structure in this design is burst mode of PPM+BPSK. The proposed UWB pulse generator was successfully implemented on 0.18- CMOS technology. The peak-to-peak amplitude of output pulse is about 220 mV with 50- load, the maximum power consumption is 4 mW at a raw data rate of 7.8 Mbps and the energy consumption is 32 pJ/pulse at a pulse rate of 125 Mpulses/s.
Autors: Ruibing Dong;H. Kanaya;Ramesh K. Pokharel;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 27, issue:6, pages: 584 - 586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CNTFET Oscillator at 461 MHz
Abstract:
This letter presents design, implementation, and characterization of the first reported carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) RF oscillator. The circuit is implemented with discrete CNTFETs mounted on standard FR-4 substrate with off-the-shelf surface-mount-device components. The oscillator topology is similar to the phase shifter oscillator and uses two cascaded common source stages to provide enough gain for self-sustained and self-startup oscillation. The oscillator tank is merged with the matching network between two stages. The circuit oscillates at the frequency of 461 MHz with a phase noise of −115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and power consumption of 60 mW. While limited in output power by the driving capabilities of prototype CNTFETs, which still have a large density of residual metallic tubes, both power consumption and phase noise compare well with established and mature technologies. Moreover, the presented phase noise measurements provide a useful benchmark for the physical noise models being currently developed for this category of devices.
Autors: A. Taghavi;C. Carta;T. Meister;F. Ellinger;M. Claus;M. Schroter;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 27, issue:6, pages: 578 - 580
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Co-Simulation Scalar-Potential Finite Difference Method for the Numerical Analysis of Human Exposure to Magneto-Quasi-Static Fields
Abstract:
A two-step approach for the simulation of the exposure of a human body to magneto-quasi-static fields is presented. The co-simulation scalar-potential finite difference method is a calculation scheme, where a distribution of the magnetic vector potential inside the biological tissues is derived from a free space magnetic source field simulation using a tree-cotree gauging algorithm. With the obtained magnetic vector potential, the electric field strength inside the voxel representation of the biological tissues is calculated solving a high-dimensional discrete Poisson equation on a high-performance workstation with multiple graphics processing units (GPUs). An exposure scenario, including an inductive power transfer system, a car model, and an anatomical human body voxel model, is simulated using this approach, and the results are compared with a monolithic scaled-frequency finite difference time domain simulation. The maximum body-internal electric field strength (voxel average) is determined and compared with basic restrictions recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
Autors: Martin Zang;Carsten Cimala;Markus Clemens;Jennifer Dutiné;Thomas Timm;Benedikt Schmuelling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coalition Formation Game for Distributed Node Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
In the context of wireless mobile ad hoc networks, node clustering is a well-known solution for handling the scalability issue. While existing work focused on unstructured (i.e., flat) networks, this paper investigates a clustering algorithm to handle stable size-restricted clusters for structured (i.e., group-based) networks. In addition, we have identified that the ad hoc network clustering literature lacks a theoretical framework. This paper fills this gap by proposing to use coalition game theory, identifying coalitions to clusters and players to nodes. This theoretical framework allows us to derive a novel generic distributed node clustering algorithm. The algorithm is proved to converge to Nash-stable partitions. It is based on the concept of switch operations, where nodes take decision whether to leave or not their current coalition based on the coalition values. These decisions are made independently on any node individual payoff, meaning that the coalition formation game has a transferable utility. This generic algorithm is then tailored to both structured and unstructured networks, by defining judiciously the value functions and the heuristics dedicated to selecting suitable switch operations. Based on extensive simulations, we show that our proposed solutions outperform the existing ones especially in terms of cluster size and stability.
Autors: Raphaël Massin;Christophe J. Le Martret;Philippe Ciblat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 3940 - 3952
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Prognostic Model Based on Machine Learning for Tidal Current Prediction
Abstract:
This paper proposes a univariate prognostic approach based on wavelet transform and support vector regression (SVR) to predict the tidal current speed and direction with high accuracy. The proposed model decomposes the tidal current data into some subharmonic components. The details and approximation components are later fed to several SVR models to attend the prediction process. In order to increase the robustness of the model, the idea of combined prediction is used to model each subharmonic signal by several SVRs. The median operator is further used to determine the aggregated forecast tidal current data. Due to the high reliance of SVR model on the kernel function and hyperplane parameters, a new optimization method based on the bat algorithm is used to train the SVR model. The final forecast tidal current data are constructed using an aggregation operator in the output of the SVRs. The accuracy and satisfying performance of the proposed model are examined on the practical tidal data collected from the Bay of Fundy, NS, Canada. The experimental results reveal the high capability and robustness of the proposed hybrid model for the tidal current prediction.
Autors: Abdollah Kavousi-Fard;Wencong Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 55, issue:6, pages: 3108 - 3114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Communication Theoretical Analysis of Multiple-Access Channel Capacity in Magneto-Inductive Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Magneto-inductive (MI) wireless communications is an emerging subject with a rich set of applications, including local area networks for the Internet-of-Things, wireless body area networks, in-body and on-chip communications, and underwater and underground sensor networks as a low-cost alternative to radio frequency, acoustic or optical methods. Practical MI networks include multiple access channel (MAC) mechanisms for connecting a random number of coils without any specific topology or coil orientation assumptions covering both short and long ranges. However, there is not any information theoretical modeling of MI MAC (MIMAC) capacity of such universal networks with fully coupled frequency selective channel models and exact 3-D coupling model of circular coils instead of long range dipole approximations. In this paper, K-user MIMAC capacity is information theoretically modeled and analyzed, and two-user MIMACs are modeled with explicitly detailed channel responses, bandwidths and coupled thermal noise. K-user MIMAC capacity is achieved through Lagrangian solution with K-user water-filling optimization. Optimum orientations maximizing capacity and received power are theoretically analyzed, and numerically simulated for two-user MIMACs. Constructive gain and destructive interference mechanisms on MIMACs are introduced in comparison with the classical interference based approaches. The theoretical basis promises the utilization of MIMACs in 5G architectures.
Autors: Burhan Gulbahar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 2594 - 2607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Broadband Mixed-Signal Power Amplifier in Bulk CMOS With Hybrid Class-G and Dynamic Load Trajectory Manipulation
Abstract:
This paper presents a mixed-signal power amplifier (PA) with real-time hybrid Class-G and dynamic load trajectory manipulation (DLTM) operation that achieves PA efficiency enhancement into the deep power back-off (PBO) region. Moreover, we dynamically manipulate the PA load impedance trajectory that travels from the optimum output power (Pout) load impedance to the optimum efficiency load impedance during PBO, which creates PA PBO efficiency peaking. The introduced digitally intensive mixed-signal PA architecture enables precise and optimum real-time hybrid PA operation and ensures both PA output amplitude and phase accuracy. DLTM operation also extends the PA RF carrier bandwidth. A prototype PA is fully integrated in a standard 65-nm bulk CMOS process. Its load modulation network is realized by an on-chip compact transformer balun and two on-chip switch-controlled capacitors. The PA achieves +24.6-dBm (+24.4-dBm) peak Pout and 45.6% (45.8%) maximum drain efficiency (DE) at 2.4 GHz (2.8 GHz). DLTM operation extends the PA Pout and 1-dB bandwidth from 41.7% to 53.8%. By combining the real-time hybrid Class-G and DLTM operation with mixed-signal linearization, the PA delivers +17.6/+17.3-dBm (+17.3/+17-dBm) 10M-Sym/s 64QAM/256QAM at 2.4 GHz (2.8 GHz) with 27.5/26.7% (26.2/24.1%) DE, -29.2/-30.4-dB (-31.3/-31.5 dB) rms error vector magnitude (EVM), and -25.3/-25.1-dBc (-26.4/-26.1-dBc) adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR). The total chip area is 1.9 mm^2.
Autors: Song Hu;Shouhei Kousai;Hua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 1463 - 1478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Synchronous Cellular Model of Nonlinear Calcium Dynamics: Simulation and FPGA Synthesis Results
Abstract:
Recent studies have demonstrated that calcium is a widespread intracellular ion that controls a wide range of temporal dynamics in the mammalian body. The simulation and validation of such studies using experimental data would benefit from a fast large scale simulation and modelling tool. This paper presents a compact and fully reconfigurable cellular calcium model capable of mimicking Hopf bifurcation phenomenon and various nonlinear responses of the biological calcium dynamics. The proposed cellular model is synthesized on a digital platform for a single unit and a network model. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed cellular model can mimic the biological calcium behaviors with considerably low hardware overhead. The approach has the potential to speed up large-scale simulations of slow intracellular dynamics by sharing more cellular units in real-time. To this end, various networks constructed by pipelining 10 k to 40 k cellular calcium units are compared with an equivalent simulation run on a standard PC workstation. Results show that the cellular hardware model is, on average, 83 times faster than the CPU version.
Autors: Hamid Soleimani;Emmanuel M. Drakakis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 703 - 713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study of Surface Integral Equations for Accurate and Efficient Analysis of Plasmonic Structures
Abstract:
Surface integral equations, which are commonly used in electromagnetic simulations, have recently been applied to various plasmonic problems, while there is still no complete agreement on which formulations provide accurate and efficient solutions. In this paper, we present the strong material dependences of the conventional formulations, revealing their contradictory performances for different problems. We further explain the numerical problems in the constructed matrix equations, shedding light on the design of alternative formulations that can be more accurate, efficient, and stable than the existing ones. Based on our observations in the limit cases, we present a new formulation, namely, a modified combined-tangential formulation (MCTF), which provides stable solutions of plasmonic problems in wide ranges of negative permittivity values. The favorable properties of MCTF in comparison to other formulations are demonstrated not only on canonical problems but also on realistic cases involving nanowires.
Autors: Barışcan Karaosmanoğlu;Akif Yılmaz;Özgür Ergül;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 65, issue:6, pages: 3049 - 3057
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison Between Three Sparse Unmixing Algorithms Using a Large Library of Shortwave Infrared Mineral Spectra
Abstract:
The comparison described in this paper has been motivated by two things: 1) a “spectral library” of shortwave infrared reflectance spectra that we have built, consisting of the spectra of 60 nominally pure materials (mostly minerals, but also water, dry vegetation, and several man-made materials) and 2) the needs of users in the mining industry for the use of fast and accurate unmixing software to analyze tens to hundreds of thousands of spectra measured from drill core or chips using HyLogging instruments, and other commercial reflectance spectrometers. Individual samples are typically a mixture of only one, two, three, or occasionally four minerals. Therefore, in order to avoid overfitting, a sparse unmixing algorithm is required. We compare three such algorithms using some real world test data sets: full subset selection (FSS), sparse demixing (SD), and L1 regularization. To aid the comparison, we introduce two novel aspects: 1) the simultaneous fitting of the low frequency background with mineral identification (which provides greater model flexibility) and 2) the combined fitting being carried out using a suitably defined Mahalanobis distance; this has certain optimality properties under an idealized model. Together, these two innovations significantly improve the accuracy of the results. FSS and L1 regularization (suitably optimized) produce similar levels of accuracy, and are superior to SD. Discussion includes possible improvements to the algorithms, and their possible use in other domains.
Autors: Mark Berman;Leanne Bischof;Ryan Lagerstrom;Yi Guo;Jon Huntington;Peter Mason;Andrew A. Green;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 55, issue:6, pages: 3588 - 3610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Two Current Transformer Calibration Systems at NRC Canada
Abstract:
A comparison of two systems based on different methods for calibration of current transformers at several different transformation ratios, burdens, and power frequencies of 60 Hz and 50 Hz is performed at the National Research Council of Canada. The obtained discrepancies in ratio and phase errors are within /A and rad, respectively, for small test currents and less for larger test currents.
Autors: Branislav V. Djokić;Harold Parks;Nicholas Wise;Dragana Naumović-Vuković;Slobodan P. Škundrić;Aleksandar D. Žigić;Vladimir Polužanski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 66, issue:6, pages: 1628 - 1635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison Study for the Estimation of SOFC Internal Dynamic States in Complex Power Systems Using Filtering Algorithms
Abstract:
This paper enumerates three commonly used filtering algorithms and shows the detailed steps of their incorporation with general nonlinear systems for dynamic state estimation. The mathematical model of a stand-alone solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is briefly discussed and derived, which is then mathematically connected to a multiarea, diverse-generator, interconnected complex test system. The mathematical representation of the entire power system is tailored into a certain compact form to provide suitability for the implementation of filtering algorithms for the design of dynamic state estimators. With the utilization of phasor measurement units, the state estimators are able to work in a decentralized manner with the mere knowledge of local noisy voltage and current measurements. Successfully estimating the internal dynamic states of SOFC connected to complex power systems offers a novel methodology for the acquisition of the internal unmeasurable states of SOFC, which will facilitate future controller designs that may require the otherwise inaccessible states.
Autors: Shenglong Yu;Tyrone Fernando;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 13, issue:3, pages: 1027 - 1035
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computational Study of Efficiency Map Calculation for Synchronous AC Motor Drives Including Cross-Coupling and Saturation Effects
Abstract:
After designing and optimizing an electric machine, efficiency maps are needed to predict a vehicle’s performance in a dynamic simulation. Calculating efficiencies at various torque and speed points, however, requires prior knowledge of the input excitation conditions, such as the current magnitude and advance angle, in an electromagnetic finite-element analysis simulation. Hence, this paper derives and uses nonlinear motor control equations (MTPA, FW, MTPV) in the study of efficiency map calculation while accounting for both saturation and cross-coupling effects. Two synchronous ac motors are considered in this paper, including the 2010 Prius IPM and a PM-assisted synchronous reluctance machine, with all procedure steps outlined in detail.
Autors: Mohammad Hossain Mohammadi;David Alister Lowther;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computer Aided Education System Based on Augmented Reality by Immersion to 3-D Magnetic Field
Abstract:
An immersive real-time visualization system of 3-D magnetic field for educational purposes is presented. This immersive visualization system is based on augmented reality technology. The proposed system provides observation of a magnetic field distribution and its stereoscopic vision in 3-D space using head mounted display. To improve the visualization capabilities, a new real-time method for drawing magnetic flux lines in 3-D space is developed and presented in this paper. It enables a user to easily observe and grasp a magnetic field generated by multiple sources (e.g., magnets and/or multiple coils) in an augmented 3-D space. Additionally, it permits a user to freely and interactively move the magnetic sources within the visualization space and to observe the magnetic fields interference in real-time. As a result, one can intuitively and easy visualize, observe and grasp the magnetic field even in 3-D space.
Autors: Shinya Matsutomo;Tomohisa Manabe;Vlatko Cingoski;So Noguchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 

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